Sunday, March 31, 2019
follicular Lymphoma Case StudyThe clinical presumption abandoned was a 33 punctuate old persevering diagnosed with chemotherapy broad toss follicular lymphoma. Lymphoma is a type of finishcer of the lymphocytes, which belongs to the white profligate cubicle family of the body.1 White blood cells circulate the body through an drawn-out network of lymphatic sy understructures, illust dictated in work up 1, which includes the bone up marrows, spleen, thymus and the lymph nodes.Lymphoma is categorize into two, the Hodgkin lymphoma and the non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). follicular lymphoma belongs to the group of NHL that affects the B-cell lymphocytes, which plays a critical role in insubordinate response by producing antibodies in human body. Under the view of a microscope, follicular lymphoma produces a nodule or follicular structure, as the constitute suggested. Microscopic im eld of follicular lymphoma can be seen in figure 2.DiagnosisDiagnosis requires a biopsy of a lym ph node, involving the process of obtaining a down(p) amount of tissue for testing in the laboratory.5, 6 However, biopsy alone al dispirited not be sufficient to diagnose the lymphoma. Other scans on the abdominal, chest, or pelvic areas by using techniques such as Computer mental imagery Scan (CT-Scan), Positron Emission Tomography (PET-Scan), pull up stakes aid diagnosing as well.7, 8 tally to the National Comprehensive Cancer net profit (NNCN) Guidelines, laboratory test which is inclusive of full blood count, uric battery-acid level, serum calcium level, as well as liver exercise test are needed in order to confirm diagnosis.9Follicular Lymphoma Stages and ClassificationsStaging is primal in tolerant with follicular lymphoma as it divides affected role into group and determines what kind of interposition is needed, or whether preaching is required. Generally, NHLs are dual-lane into four presents, summarized in table 1 below. Follicular lymphomas categorized in a cademic degree II, lead, and IV are termed as advanced follicular lymphoma, as the case of the persevering in the scenario. 5, 6Table 1 Stages of NHL in terms of regions affect.StagesDescriptionsStage IOnly one of the lymph node is involvedStage IITwo or more lymph nodes from the same spot of diaphragm are involvedStage IIILymph nodes at both(prenominal) billets of the diaphragm are involvedStage IVInvolves a identification quash of lymph nodes, tissues or organsFurthermore, lymphomas can in general be described as down in the mouth Grade, Intermediate Grade, or High Grade, depending on the speed they grow, pitch on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) grading system1, 6. Generally, low grade lymphomas are unwind growth, tour high grade lymphomas are characterized by rapid growing tumor cell which requires aggressive word compared to low grade and fair grade lymphomas. Ironically, many High Grade lymphoma can be cured, while low grades lymphoma tends to re appear and contribute to change states.6Apart from the general lymphomas grading, follicular lymphomas gull their own grading system, which are sepa governd into three grades. According to the existence Health Organization (WHO), the follicular lymphomas are categorized according to the number of centroblast (large follicular cell) present while the tumor was scanned by using the highest former of magnification on the microscope.1, 5, 6 The grades were summarized in table 2.CausesA explore make by Bosga-Bouwer et al. over 30 patients indicates that genetic factors are the simple causes of follicular lymphomas. The explore apply southern blotting technique, polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ crossbreed to confirm a translocation in the chromosome 14 and 18, which affects the bcl-2 proto-oncogene, and the main function of bcl-2 genes is to prevent apoptosis of B-cell lymphocytes.10 Overexpression of the bcl-2 gene results in prolonged survival deem of the cell due to the prevention of programmed cell death.1, 10Signs and SymptomsSymptoms of follicular lymphoma include adenopathy, night sweats, weight loss, and fever. Adenopathy represents painless swelling in one the lymph nodes. Another important indicator includes elevated levels of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), an enzyme that facilitates the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. 11 However, it is important to let down that some of the patient lymphoma lead be asymptomatic.ComplicationsFollicular lymphoma leave nevertheless complicate by increasing tumor bulk and threaten end-organ function. subsequently a presumptuousness period of m, it might transform into a more rapid growing lymphoma- the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In contrast, DLBCL is a a great deal more aggressive form of NHL. According to a research done by Horning and Rosenberg, 25% to 60% of the patient will transform from follicular lymphoma into DLBCL12. A reputation done by Lossos et al. suggested t hat the transformation to DLBCL includes multiple genetic mechanisms no single gene is responsible for the transformation13. Apart from that, another paper by Montoto from Cancer Research UK Medical Oncology Unit, demonstrates that the risk will be significantly higher (P-value = 0.02) if a patient was in an advanced stop of follicular lymphoma, which is the situation present in the case scenario14. It was similarly found that there are no statistically significant differences between the cartridge holder of initiation of therapy and chances of transforming from follicular lymphoma into DLBCL. If a patient with DLBCL is not hardened accordingly, it is oftentimes fatal 5, 14.Furthermore, tumor of follicular lymphoma might relapse and further break up into chemotherapy resistant follicular lymphoma. Chemotherapy resistant lymphoma occurs when the lymphoma that has been responding to chemotherapy had begun to grow, resisting the effects of the therapy. The resistances are acqu ired through a number of mechanisms, namely genetic transformation of the B-cells. When this occurs, as seen in the case, the give-and-take option will be narrowed down, since chemotherapy is no nightlong an option.15Incidence, Morbidity, and mortality rate RateFollicular lymphomas have an incidence rate of 2500 cases each family in the UK.16 It exhibits the second highest incidence rate among all the lymphomas, with the first creation DLBCL. 17 It dominates 30% of all the NHL and it is the most common type of Low Grade NHL.1, 17Prognosis Index is used to predict the treatment options and outcome of follicular lymphoma. A Follicular Lymphoma Prognosis Index, developed by Solal-Celigny, is currently beingness used internationally18. This prognosis index takes into account of 5 factors, which are age (60 years), stages of follicular lymphoma (stage III IV), hemoglobin levels (low), numbers of lymph nodes/organs affected (4), and levels of LDH (high) 17, 18. 91% of patient whic h suffers none of the to a higher placementioned factors will live longer than 5 years. If the patient suffers from two or three of the factors in Follicular Lymphoma Prognosis Index, the rate of living longer than 5 years will drop to 78% and 43% respectively 18.In the UK, the median age of onset of follicular lymphoma was 60 years old, as compared to 67years old in the United States (US) 16, 19. In the US, according to the National Cancer Institute, rate of mortality was the highest among those from 75-84 years old, with a death rate of 33.7%. However, in those patient older from 20-34 years old (case scenario patient aged 33years) mortality rate was notwithstanding 1.6%. The average death rate of patient with NHL was 7.1 per 100,000 men and woman per year in the US19.Evidence Based Treatment Options of Follicular LymphomaFollicular lymphoma can be considered incurable, but fortunately the growing tumors are sensitive to beam and chemotherapy. Treatment options of lymphomas ar e highly base on severity of the symptoms and stages of lymphoma.5,20 If patient is asymptomatic, prescribers often employs a wait and watch approach, and according to studies, there is no difference in the survival rate between patients who were set in the beginning and patients who were treated according to wait and watch method acting. 20 Treatments options are summarized in table 3.Treatment optionsDescriptionsRadiotherapyUses ionizing ray of light to set aside cellsChemotherapyUses drugs to debar or slow down the growth of cellsmonoclonal antibodyUses proteins that targets rapid growing cellsRadioimmunotherapy hot isotopes combined with monoclonal antibodies osmium Marrow TransplantTransplantation of stem cellsRadiotherapyOne of the ways to treat follicular lymphoma is by acting beam of light, which is also called radiation therapy. It was preferably use in Stage I or Stage II of the lymphomas which are localized.20, 21 The mechanism of radiotherapy includes usage of i onizing radiation such as beta and gamma rays to destroy the tumor cells and impairs their growth, while the body removes them through a natural process.Currently, the method employed in treatment of lymphoma tumor is known as the outdoor(a) beam therapy. 20, 21, 22 External beam therapy is done from a political machine outside the patient, which is known and the linear accelerator. Radiation to body parts preceding(prenominal) the diaphragm is known as Mantle Field radiation, while radiation to parts below the diaphragm is known as Inverted Y-field radiation.22 A study by Aviles has shown that survival rate of a patient treated with radiotherapy for a 5 years period was 48%, and if used together with chemotherapy, the patients survival rate will be increased to 83%.23, 24 According to another research by MacManus, 40% of the radiotherapy patient remained disease free later on 10 years.ChemotherapyChemotherapy involves the usage of drugs to stop or slow down the growth of lympho ma B-cells, whence managing the lymphomas symptoms.5, 6 Chemotherapy drugs barely target specific rapid-growing cells such as tumor cells, and impairs their ability to regurgitate and growth. 20 However, many cell lines in patients such as bone marrow, hair follicles, and the lining of the gastrointestinal tract are rapid-growing cells and therefore, it will be targeted by chemotherapy drugs as well, causing the side effects.Initial responses towards chemotherapy are usually high, and therefore, it is considered as the first line-treatment in treating NHL.20 Many protocols of chemotherapy gang were proposed, with the common ones being the meat cleaver and CVP.CHOP therapy includes the usage of four drugs- Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone while CVP therapy uses Cyclophospharmide, Vincristine, and Prednisone.5, 6, 20 A research by Fisher had concluded that CHOP should be used as first line treatment for advanced grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with a result of 44% survival rate in 1138 patient afterwards a period of 3 years.26 However, a more upstart study by Hiddemann suggested that the use of Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody, together with CHOP greatly improves the response rate of patient to 96% (P-value of 0.011), and reduce the chances of treatment failure by 60%. The study, which was done on 2005, proves that R-CHOP is the superior frontline treatment of choice for advanced follicular lymphoma compared to CHOP.According to the British National pharmacopeia 57 (BNF 57), the usage of CHOP will produce side effects such as oral mucositis, hyperuricaemia and tumour lysis syndrome. Nausea and vomiting is also the common side effects of chemotherapy drugs, and it may lead to refusal of further treatment. Bone marrow suppression and alopecia are also of the core problems of chemotherapy drugs.Monoclonal Antibody TherapyMonoclonal antibody therapy works by using antibodies that sticks to the come to the fore of specific groups of cel ls, such as cancer cells, and trigger the bodys natural immune system to destroy these cells. 5 The advantages of monoclonal antibody compared to chemotherapy is that they are more specific compared to chemotherapy.Rituximab is used to treat follicular lymphoma, due to the mechanism of action of binding to CD20 protein- the abundant protein on the surface of B-cell. Rituximab causes the death of the cell by the induction of apoptosis. 29 According to the BNF 57 and North London Cancer Guideline, Rituximab is used to treat stage III and IV follicular lymphoma, or in those patient that had a relapse after treatment of chemotherapy, or those that other treatment options are exhausted.16, 28 Nice guidelines recommends that Rituximab should be given as a third-line treatment, and should only be given as first line with combination of chemotherapy to patient with stage III and IV follicular lymphoma.A meta-analysis research by Vidal et al. reveals that when Rituximab was given as a suppo rt therapy, it significantly improves boilers suit survival rate and the relapse rate of patient, compared to patient that did not have Rituximab as maintenance therapy.29, 30 Another research by Hauprock and Hess indicates that Rituximab improves survival rate if given as relapse therapy and maintenance therapy.31 When given together with CHOP chemotherapy, it greatly improves the overall outcome of a patient.Adverse side effects of Rituximab appears to be infusion related side-effects, namely the cytokine release syndrome, which is characterized by fever, chills, nausea and vomiting, as well as tumor pain.RadioimmunotherapyRadioimmunotherapy consist of one radioactive isotope and a monoclonal antibody to assist specific cell targeting. The radioactive isotope which is attached to the antibody will release radiation once the antibody is bound to the specific cell type, hence killing the cells.21, 32 This method is considered to be a more advance therapy compared to chemotherapy an d monoclonal antibody therapy.There are two drugs available now in radioimmunotherapy, namely Bexxar and Zevalin.32, 33 Zevalin consist of two radioactive isotopes called indium-111 and yttrium-90. The purpose of indium-111 in the drug is to enables physician to view the paths of the drug in the body, while yttrium-90 is the healing(p) portion of the drug. Zevalin is administered via the endovenous route together with Rituximab over a time of ten minutes, over a course of a week.The main side effect of Zevalin is lowered blood cell count, conventionly observed 4-6 weeks after the treatment. However, Zevalin is considered to be advantageous in terms of side-effects as it does not exhibits the normal side-effects of chemotherapy drugs, such as alopecia, nausea and vomiting.In a clinical rivulet involving patients with NHL, Zevalin manage to produce a response rate of 70-80%. Furthermore, in the same trial, Zevalin produces responses in patient who no longer respond to chemotherapy and Rituximab.32 A appraise by WitZig showed a response rate of 82% to Zevalin in patient with low grade NHL. The advantages of Zevalin Therapy are that it only uses a single panelling of radiation and it is being well tolerated by the patient, which was proven in the study.34 In another randomise controlled trial done by WitZig and Gordon et al., Zevalin was proved to be more superior than Rituximab, with an overall response rate of 80% compared to 55% in treating follicular lymphoma.Apart from that, another immunotherapy drug called Bexxar, is a combination of Tositumomab and single I 131 Tositumomab. Tositumomab is a monoclonal antibody targeting the CD20 protein in the B-cell Lymphoma, while Iodine I 131 Tositumomab is a radiolabeled derivative of the monoclonal antibody. Beta-radiation released by Iodine 131 is responsible for killing of the tumor cells. Bexxar is given in two different sets of intravenous infusion, two weeks apart.Common side-effects of Bexxar include supp ression of bone marrow, which is characterized by low blood counts. Bexxar might also cause hyperthyroidism and anti-murine antibody formations.A research done by Kaminski et al. shows that Bexxar produces a very high response rate of 95% in 76 patients who enrolled in the study. 75% of the patient in the study still had a complete remission even after 5 years. This research of Bexxar rivals any kind of therapy previously used in treating follicular lymphoma, including chemotherapy, as Bexxar therapy will be completed in conscionable one week, and proves to be more effective. Another study, by Jacene, comparing Bexxar and Zevalin, reveals that Bexxar will cause less bone marrow suppression compared to Zevalin, although both were generally well tolerated.Treatment Recommendation for Patient in Case ScenarioAccording to the patient in the case scenario given, he is currently 33 years-old and he developed chemotherapy resistant advanced follicular lymphoma recently. Advanced follicula r lymphoma indicates that his position is in either stage III or IV, involving lymph node on both sides of the diaphragm and/or organs. In this case, since the follicular lymphoma developed resistance, chemotherapy is no longer an option.According to the BNF and the elegant guideline, Rituximab monotherapy could be given to patients who have relapsed stage III or IV follicular lymphoma, which developed resistance to chemotherapy. 28, 29 It is recommended that the patient takes 375mg/m2 of Rituximab over a period of 21 days, according to the operating instructions in NICE guideline. The patient has to be on it for 8 cycles which is somewhat 6 months.Rituximab was proved to induce better response and improve overall survival rate in follicular lymphoma patient according to the meta-analysis of randomized trial performed by Vidal et al. and another study done by Hauptrock and Hess (mentioned above in treatment). Another study by Monila further supports the usage of Rituximab as it i ncrease both response rate and survival rate as well as improving the long-term prognosis of follicular lymphoma patient. all told these evidence validates the treatment option of using Rituximab in the patient.The cost of Rituximab based on the evaluation of Assessment Group Model in the NICE guideline is approximately 8500 per life year gained in patient junior than 60 years-old and 9700 per life year gained in patient aging 60 years-old and above. It is considered cost effective based on the evaluation of the NICE guideline.If treatment using Rituximab proves to be unsuccessful, radioimmunotherapy drug Bexxar will be recommended. Although Bexxar is still considered a new drug, the clinical trials done by Kaminski shows a remission rate of 75%. Bexxar had also been evaluated in one of the study, which shows that 86% of the patient achieved a complete response in Stage III and IV follicular lymphoma.ConlusionIn conclusion, patient with chemotherapy resistant advanced follicular l ymphoma should be treated with Rituximab, followed by Bexxar and Zevalin. All in all, with the new advances in radioimmunotherapy, the joint crusade of health care professionals and the utilizing of guidelines with evidence-based research, patient with the follicular lymphoma, although incurable, will still be able to lead a healthy and fruitful life.
Mona Lisa By da Vinci Da Vinci secular benignantismThe transition movement that took place between the 14th and 17th vitamin C in Italy is known as the Renaissance conviction or by definition rebirth. The philosophy that took place in the extent is peerless of the humanism or the center on on the human being. One of the master stratagemists of this age is da Vinci Da Vinci (1452-1519) and one of the ikons that best represents the philosophy and art of this period is the Mona Lisa.The philosophy of humanism brought on a time where the focus was on the human being. The previous philosophy of the medieval time was to a greater extent cogitate on biblical motivation, whereas humanism was not. Humanism stood for the the emergence of the individual habitus, in place of stereotyped or symbolic figure, greater realism and ensuant attention to detail, as reflected in the development of linear perspective and increase realism of human faces and bodies (High Renaissance Art. (n.d )).The artist of the Renaissance time unbroken up with the spirit of humanism by enactment lifelike human take a shits with the realistic clothing, and expression and correct pro voice. A new three-dimensional form was created with new techniques. The natural landscape began to appear as the footing as a transition from the figures of heaven against a gold background.Realism and high-mindedness be other concepts that were used in the Renaissance time and one could say that Leonardo Da Vinci mastered them. Realism or portraying subjects as they really were accomplished by forms, colors, proportions, sportsmanlikes and shade effects, spatial harmoniousness and composition. Leonardos background in science, drafting, sculpting and architecture all helped in every portion of his painting of the Mona Lisa (The Mona Lisa, (n.d.)). Idealism was the idea of portraying subjects, as they should be.The Mona Lisa was a painting that Leonardo Da Vinci was working on in between the geezerh ood of 1503-1506 some believe the painting was still never finished by his death in 1519. The Mona Lisa clearly represents the philosophy of the humanism by representing the focus of the human being and realism. It in any case shows nature as shown in the background behind the figure in the painting.The main focus of the Mona Lisa falls very on the psyche in the picture. In previous medieval art the figures in the portrait were pictured in profiles and were stiff. Mona Lisa is painted in a relaxed three-quarter pose and cropped in contrast to the norm of full-length portraits. Whereas pictures previously had the figure in the painting adorned with jewels and decorations the Mona Lisa is simple and free of any jewelry. The cleaning womans bull is smooth and only has a simple veil (which may be a symbol of chastity) her hands are relaxed and free of bracelets and rings. Only the folds of her invest or dress are present (Mona Lisa, painted from 1503-1507, (n.d.)) as nearly as th e lace-topped dress she is wearing.The Mona Lisas main focus is on the face of the painting. The techniques of chiaroscuro, victimization lights and darks and sfumato (blending one tone to another) or the illusion of corners that allows the imagination to show the subject field in a different way, was introduced and used by Da Vinci in his painting (Mona Lisa painted from 1503-1507, (n.d.)). These techniques, that were achieved by using oil paints, were used on the face and the hands to fall in the person appear to be more real and virtually as if she has movement. The smile that is so famous and adds to the conundrum of her mood is also achieved by these techniques. While some viewers see the woman smiling others see her without a smile.The pyramid design, which was commonly used, also helps the viewer to focus on the women. It is believed that the pyramid gives a representation of self-aggrandising tribute to the father, the son and the Holy Spirit. Mona Lisas pose is that o f a pyramid solve with her head, shoulders and hands (Mona Lisa, La Giaconda, (n.d.)). There is also a glow on the face, neck and hands that puts an emphasis on those.Leonardo painted a true representation of the women of the time. The womans face is free of facial hair including her eyebrows. At this time it was common for women of the time to pluck their eyebrows because some feel they were unsightly. When Leonarod did this it stains the person very real (Mona Lisa, La Giaconda, (n.d.).The woman seems to be seated in a chair on some sort of balcony. The pillars to the side of the balcony almost form a frame to the figure behind the woman is a landscaped background.The figure in the painting is emphasized by the light and dark tones of the wardrobe as well as the background. The face and form have lighter tones on them with smooth lines gone are the days of outlined figures. The background does not reflect heaven or weird symbols but that of nature, which was another emphasis o f the time. The curves in the background with the paths, rivers and mountains are a small reflection of the curves in her hair and clothes. It is believed that Da Vinci was working on some of his finest sketches of plant life and nature (Mona Lisa, painted from 1503-1507, (n.d.)), when he worked on the painting.Some hints of yellow and gold are used in the copious paths behind the figure. The landscape in the background cover mountains, trees and water are painted in cooler blues and greens. There is a reek of depth and form because the picture becomes hazier as the landscape progresses backwards. Also, with this technique, the figure in the painting appears closer to the viewer and puts more emphasis on her because of the scenery.Leonardo Da Vinci may be considered one of the greatest artists of all times. Leonardo was a true master of the Renaissance time reflecting the philosophy of the time that being humanism and the emphasis of the human being.The Mona Lisa is a painting th at shows such a philosophy of humanism. With the colors used, the shading and blending of the paints, Da Vinci could make the viewer focus on the human. The woman is very simple with no elaborate clothes or jewelry to take away from her, with a reserved posture.The background is that of nature, which another focus of the time was. The landscape showing depth helps the viewer focus on the women.The Mona Lisa is a true masterpiece of the Renaissance time. With Leonardo Da Vincis use of his techniques of sfumato and chiaroscuro he was able to make his figure of the women truly reflect the philosophies of the time. Mona Lisa appears to be a real woman with both depth and movement.
Saturday, March 30, 2019
wellnessy Biscuit fabrication IndiaIndia Biscuits Industry is the largest among all the food industries and has a turnover of around Rs.3000 crores. India is known to be the second largest manufacturer of biscuits, the commencement ceremony being USA. It is classified under two sectors organized and unorganized. Bread and biscuits atomic number 18 the major disrupt of the bakery industry and covers around 80 part of the total bakery products in India. Biscuits stand at a higher(prenominal) value and production level than bread. This belongs to the unorganized sector of the bakery Industry and covers over 70% of the total production.India Biscuits Industry came into limelight and started gaining a profound status in the bakery industry in the later part of 20th century when the urbanized society called for readymade food products at a tenable cost. Biscuits were assumed as sick-mans diet in earlier days. Now, it has puzzle one of the roughly loved fast food products for every come on group. Biscuits are easy to carry, tasty to eat, cholesterol free and reasonable at cost. States that have the larger intake of biscuits are Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh. Maharashtra and West Bengal, the approximately industrially developed states, hold the maximum amount of consumption of biscuits. Even, the countryfied sector consumes around 55 percent of the biscuits in the bakery products.Health biscuits are to a fault gaining speed in market. It has become the part of the diet of many health conscious people. Many brands like Britannia, sunfeast and Parle are advance up with their variety of health biscuits which are beneficial during sickness or for diabetic people of health conscious people.The following survey is on this section of biscuits. It is done on 200 consumers of health biscuits who are randomly selected.OBJECTIVE OF THE SURVEYThe objective of the survey is to grow the factor which influences the customers to buy health biscuits of a specific brand.To know the expectations and requirements of all customers regarding health biscuitsTo find discover how the biscuits of diametrical brands are paced by the cosumers..Also to find out what improvements the consumer wants in this draw in of biscuits.LIMITATION OF THE SURVEYSome of the respondents were not responding to near of the questions.Some of the respondents dine have so much information virtually the biscuit and the brand.RESEARCH METHODOLOGYThe methodology followed for conducting the study includes the specification of query design, sample design, questionnaire design, data collection and Statistical tools used for analyzing the collected data.FINDINGSBritannia creamcracker is the most preferred health biscuits as most of the respondents buy this biscuits.most of the respondents purchasing this biscuit are diabetic patients or they buy to keep themselves fit. damage of the biscuit is also satisfactory and quality wise also its g ood.Most of the respondents got aware of this biscuits by tv advertizements.The customers want more varieties in this line of biscuits.CONCLUSIONAfter conducting this research it was found that the demand for the health biscuits is change magnitude and there is a lot of scope in this line. The current smirch is that Britannia has the highest sales and demand for it health biscuits and the most demanded biscuit is nutri choise creamcracker.RECOMMENDATION AND SUGGESTIONS in that location should be more variety of healthy biscuits available.There packaging and advertisement should be taken care appropriately.Taste of these products should also be improved.They should also provide with more schemes and benefitsLearningFrom this study I acquired the knowledge of different factors which affect the customer preference in biscuit market.Also how the respondents rate the product on the given factors.
Friday, March 29, 2019
Buyer provider family blood in JIT EnvironmentExecutive SummaryThe main direct of this aim is to intimate the enquiry methodological analysis that bequeath be adopted to organize a utterance on the Buyer provider kindred in a JIT environment. The seek testament be mainly made upon a sequel get a line of mining compevery c in alled Vale Inco. The bea of cerebrate leave alone be on its UK refinery, based on the outskirts of London.The aim of this dissertation is to establish how lean or JIT manuf flakeuring impacts the emptor supplier kindred in the organisation of center and how they atomic number 18 evaluated and metric. A frame make up depart be launch for vendee supplier relationship poser under JIT finally.The interrogation project go away follow trio objectives to procure the aimThe respective(a) factors have-to doe withd in the development of purchaser supplier relationship will be looked into and analysed.The external situations, the uncerta inties surrounding JIT interlingual rendition will be investigated.Furthermore, the abstract and analytical relationship surrounded by JIT, supplier involvement and cooperation, and translate range of mountains integration will be established and examined.The initial books look back has been conducted relating to buyer suppler relationship and JIT purchasing. Although the literature review is not extensive, this will be a continuous process throughout the period of look into of this project.An outline of the research methodology that will be adopted is stated at the end. A teddy study based commence will be the main method of research. The final analysis will be by means of a triangulation method. Finally, a contingency plan is outlined in result of some unforeseen circumstances during the course of research.IntroductionThe role of this proposal is to define the methodology that will be used to grammatical construction a dissertation about the Buyer Supplier relationsh ip in a JIT environment and the various factors affecting the supply chain.The research develops or so the case study of a Brazilian mining corporation, Vale Inco, which transforms mineral resources into the essential ingredients of peoples everyday lives. The focus of this dissertation will be on the Acton Refinery based in UK. After presenting the business environment where the company operates, a literature review and a discussion on the chosen methodology will follow.BackgroundValeIncois awholly owned footsloggerof theBrazilianmining companyVale. It is Vales nickelminingandmetalsdivision and is headquartered inToronto,Ontario,Canada. It produces nickel,copper,cobalt,platinum,rhodium,ru whereforeium,iridium,gold, andsilver. Prior to being purchased by CVRD (now Vale) in 2006,Incowas the worlds second whoppingst producer ofnickel, and the three largest mining company outsideSouth AfricaandRussiaof platinum-groupmetals. They have gross run revenue of US$23.9 billion with net income of US$5.3 billion.The focus of this subject will be on Acton Refinery based in the outskirts of London. The Acton Refinery originally regain precious metals from the residue obtained from the nickel refinery at Clydach, Wales. However, everyplace its lifetime, Acton has become peerless of the worlds major refiners of platinum-group metals (PGMs) platinum, palladium, rhodium, ru becauseium and iridium, as well as gold and silver. It withal processes original mining concentrates and indirect materials much(prenominal) as recycled spent catalysts and electronic scrap. The plant has approximately 120 employees. Recently, Vale has started implementing Lean manufacturing in indian lodge to improve efficiency. The objective of lean is to create a schema that is high-octane and well organised and devoted to continuous improvement and the elimination of all forms of waste. Just In Time (JIT) is the backbone of the lean manufacturing system. Our focus will be on JIT purchas ing and the buyer- supplier relationship in a JIT purchasing environment.Aims and objectivesThe aim of this dissertation is to establish how lean or JIT manufacturing impacts the buyer supplier relationship in the organisation of focus and how they are evaluated and measured. A framework will be established for buyer supplier relationship model under JIT finally.The research project will follow three objectives to achieve the aimThe various factors involved in the development of buyer supplier relationship will be looked into and analysed.The external situations, the uncertainties surrounding JIT adaptation will be investigated.Furthermore, the excogitationual and analytical relationship betwixt JIT, supplier involvement and cooperation, and supply chain integration will be established and examined.Literature ReviewAliterature reviewis a consistence of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge and ormethodologicalapproaches on a particular topic .A review of prior, relevant literature is an essential feature of any academic project. An effective review creates a firm foundation for advancing knowledge. It facilitates theory development, closes areas where a plethora of research represents, and uncovers areas where research is needed. (Webster and Watson 2002). This section will summarize previous research literature on Lean and JIT adaptation, the impact on the firms performance, supplier evaluation and the buyer supplier relationship and related issues. Specifically, the fundamental activities in JIT purchasing, the impact of JIT on the buyer supplier relationship and the supply chain integration will be discussed and reviewed.Lean JIT ManufacturingHeightened challenges from global competitors during the past 2 decades have prompted more manufacturing firms to adopt mod manufacturing approaches (HallandMeredith). Particularly salient among these is the concept of lean business (Womack and Jones, 1996Womack et al., 1990). Lean production is a multi-dimensional approach that encompasses a wide configuration of precaution practices, including just-in-time, character systems, work teams, cellular manufacturing, supplier management, etc. in an integrated system. The core thrust of lean production is that these practices mountain work synergistically to create a streamlined, high quality system that produces finished products at the pace of customer demand with little or no waste. As mentioned earlier JIT is the backbone of Lean manufacturing. William J. Stevenson, in Production/Operations worry , defines the term just-in-time manufacturing as a repetitive production system in which processing and movement of material and goods occurs just as they are needed, commonly in small batches (Stevenson, 1996). However, just-in-time (JIT) is more than an inventory system. JIT manufacturing is a philosophy by which an organization seeks continually to improve its products and processes by eliminating waste (Ptak , 1997). Since one purpose of JIT manufacturing is to reduce any waste and inefficiencies that do not add look on to a product, it should come as no surprise that the JIT approach was certain in Japan a country with scarce resources and space limitations. Organizations missing to use the JIT approach to manufacturing must have several twist blocks in place. These building blocks were set-back established in the early 1950s by T. Ohno, former Executive Vice President of Toyota Motor Company (Ansari and Modarress, 1990).The building blocks include company-wide commitment proper materials at the right time supplier relationships quality personnel.The JIT manufacturing approach set up give organizations the necessary benefits required to survive, and perhaps even prosper, in an economy with increasingly scarce resources. The JIT manufacturing process eliminates reasonless space and tied-up capital that can be allocated to alternative uses to improve the overall success of the organization (Ptak, 1997). In addition to ordering little batches of materials at the proper time, successful JIT organizations should keep the following requirements in mindJust-in-time manufacturing overall requirements for proper materials at the right timean acceptable level of qualityon-time delivery schedulereasonable cost (Galhenage, 1997).According to Ballou (1992,pp.528) the entire supply channel is synchronized to respond to the requirements of operations or customers. The basic concept of JIT is that the material reaches the assembly or production line exactly at the right time and the right quantity. It works on the pull system kind of than the conventional push system. In order for this to work the supplier plays a key role in a JIT environment.Buyer Supplier RelationshipA competitive advantage exists for companies that are engaged in successful long-term buyer-seller relationships (Anderson and Narus, 1990 Badaracco, 1991 Dwyer, Schurr, and Oh, 1987 Jap and Ganesa n, 2000 Ganesan, 1994 Noordewier, John, and Nevin, 1990).This makes it important for companies to understand what factors influence their relationships with separate firms. An identification of the relative influence of these factors can be used to focus a companys efforts on the areas that are just about important, improving the sustainable competitive advantage derived from that relationship (Takala and Uusitalo, 1996). The factors that influence relationships are reputation, performance satisfaction, assurance, social bonds and relation level of the corporate trust, mutual goals, power/mutualness, cooperation and commitmentTrustTrust is a fundamental relationship model building block and as such is included in most relationship models. Most definitions of trust involve a belief that one relationship partner will act in the best interests of the separate partner. Below are four of the most often cited definitions of trust1. A willingness to rely on an exchange partner, in who m one has confidence (Moorman,Zaltman and Deshpande, 1992)2. One party believes that its needs will be fulfilled in the future by actions taken by the other party. (Anderson and Weitz, 1990)3. A partys expectation that another party desires coordination will fulfil obligations and will pull its weight in the relationship. (Dwyer, Schurr and Oh, 1987)4. The belief that a partys word or promise is reliable and a party will fulfil his/her obligations in an exchange relationship. (Schurr and Ozanne, 1985)An integral element to achieve the reported benefits from more cooperative supplier relationships is the establishment of trust (Smith, Carroll and Ashford 1995). An interesting perspective on trust is that long term relationships whitethorn not require trust rather the relationship may be based on the necessity of having a supplier or distri barelyor (Kumar, 2005) In a JIT system trust becomes paramount as delivery schedules and quality of incoming material holds the key for the succe ss of the system.Mutual GoalsMutual goal is delineate as the horizontal surface to which partners share goals that can only be accomplished through word action and the maintenance of the relationship. These mutual goals provide a strong reason for relationship continuance. Soni and OKeeffe (1994) suggest that mutual goals influence performance satisfaction which, in turn, influences the level of commitment to the relationship. Shared values are similar but broader concept. Morgan and Hunt (1994) define divided values as, the extent to which partners have beliefs in common about what behaviours, goals and policies are important, unimportant, appropriate or inappropriate, and right or wrong. Most likely mutual goals encourage mutuality of interest and it then becomes possible for some(prenominal) parties to achieve those goals. Goals can be better measured as compared to values and norms.Interdependence and PowerThis is one of the key issues that go through to breakdown in relat ionships between the buyer and the supplier. Interdependence and power dissymmetry are important relationship variables. The power of a buyer or supplier is closely related to its interrelationship with each other and its partners. Anderson and Weitz (1990) defined power imbalance as the ability of one partner to furbish up the other partner to do something they would not normally do. Han, Wilson and Dant (1993) found that both buyers and sellers saw the need to increase interdependence on the other.The level of interdependence can be measured with its percentage of purchase or gross revenue according to the framework provided by mound Hill (2009). bodure1 client/supplier dependence.% of a customers purchases that come from one supplierSupplier is preponderatingCustomer and supplier are mutually mutualistCustomer and supplier are independent of one anotherCustomer is dominant% of a suppliers sales that go to one customerSource adapted from Hill Hill (2009), p.279Another scho ol of thought is that the effect of buyer-supplier power on relationships between the two parties is one of both facilitation and constraint (Coxet al., 2003). If the buyer, for example, is in a dominant position over the supplier (and there is a degree of stability to that dominance) then that dominance will facilitate considerable discretion over the conduct and commercial outcome of the relationship. However, if the buyer is in a dependent position vis--vis the supplier, then that dependence will act as a constraint on its ambitions. For example, the desire by the buyer to initiate quislingism may not be reciprocated by the supplier. Even where it is reciprocated, the supplier may try to take a disproportionate share of the gains of any collaboration.Fig 2 Buyer Supplier Relationship StyleThe model that informs this reinvigoratedsprint is based upon the above principles. There are two main elements to the model (Figure 2). First, there is the identification of the dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships. The model posits that buyer-supplier relationships consist of two main dimensions. On one handwriting, the way in which the two parties interact the extremes here being arms-length and collaborative. On the other, the manner in which the superfluity value from the relationship is shared between the two parties the three generic possibilities being the buyer winning the majority share, the supplier taking the majority share or the surplus value being shared equally. If the ideal-typical scenarios for both dimensions are combined, it can be seen that there are six generic relationship types that can exist between the buyers and suppliers (Coxet al., 2003).CooperationAnderson and Narus (1990) describe cooperation as coordinated actions taken by firms in interdependent relationships to achieve mutual goals, and in this manner, both parties cooperate in order to benefit from the relationship. Cooperation requires input from both sides and both sides working(a) to achieve the best solution with coordinated efforts producing outcomes better than one firm will achieve alone (Anderson and Narus, 1990) Cooperation implies an ongoing relationship where the structure or boundaries of that relationship have already been established and where this cooperation must take place in order for that relationship to continue.CommitmentLawler and Yoon (1993) describe commitment as an stirred attachment to a group in which members will tend to preserve in the relationship and do things not necessary to go for the relational exchange Relationship commitment exists when each partner believes that an ongoing relationship is so important as to warrant maximum efforts to maintain it to consider it endures indefinitely (Morgan and Hunt, 1994) Commitment to the relationship exists as an enduring desire to maintain a valued relationship (Moorman et al., 1992) mannerologyChoice of methodologyThe research strategy will be interpretative and based on t he case study of the international enterprise. An inductive approach will be deployed and master(a) information will be smooth through interviews of the organisations employees and fourth-year management therefore gathered culture will be both qualitative (mainly) and numeric.The methodology of the project has been decided in accordance with the onion scheme provided by Saunders (2009).Adapted from Saunders et al. (2009, p.138)Quantitative and Qualitative studyThere are two kinds of research methods, as mentioned earlier quantitative and qualitative. It is imperative to convey the appropriate kind of method for the given circumstance. Qualitative methods produce information only on the particular cases studied, and any more general conclusions are only hypotheses. Quantitative methods can be used to verify, which of such hypotheses are true.Quantitative research is generally made usingscientific methods, which can includeThe generation of models, theories and hypothesesThe de velopment of instruments and methods for measurementExperimental control and consumption ofvariablesCollection of selective information-based entropyModeling and analysis of datamilitary rating of resultsThe qualitative method investigates thewhyandhowofdecision making, not justwhat, where,when. Hence, smaller but focusedsamplesare more often needed, rather than largesamples. Qualitative methods produce information only on the particular cases studied, and any more general conclusions are only hypotheses (informative guesses).Quantitative methodscan be used to verify which of such hypotheses are true.Usually a prance of both methods is used in order to get good results from the research. In qualitative method new theories and structures are built upon existing theories and collected data. While on the other hand quantitative method builds up a hypothesis based on the existing theories and data and then tests its credibility.Data Collection MethodsPreliminary Literature review ha s already been conducted as mentioned earlier. However, further review of the existing literature will be through throughout the period of research until the submission of the draft project. Due to particular(a) time frame review of the research till date and secondary research needs to be conducted within the course of the stipulated time frame. A continuous review process will ensure any new literature will be incorporated to the project and factored into the analysis of the project. twain kinds of data can be collected during a research primary information and secondary information.Primary information is data collected for the first time by the researcher himself and it is fundamental to make the study be as close as possible to reality. The problem of this kind of data is that the observers influence on an information source, misunderstandings of purposes and inaccurate measurements can affect them. unessential information is data already gathered and collected in books, newspa pers, databases, etc. However it might not be comparable with a new study because of different purposes or conditions it was collected for.Primary information can be gathered in three different ways interviews, observations and experiments. exercise studyYin (2009) defined a case study as an empirical inquiry which investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, without necessarily separating phenomenon itself and context.A case study based approached will be adopted for this particular research with the focus on Vale Inco. After briefly defining the working of the company and its purchase team an interview with its purchase manager and senior buyers will be conducted from where primary data will be collected. This data will be then analysed by means of a triangulation method.Triangulation MethodTriangulation is broadly defined by Denzin (1 978 291) as the combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon. Given basic principles of geometry, multi ple viewpoints allow for greater accuracy. Similarly, organisational researchers can improve the accuracy of their judgments by collecting different kinds of data bearing on the same phenomenon. Thus, the convergence or agreement between more than one method enhances our belief that the results are valid and not a methodological artefact (Bouchard, 1976 268)..Research LimitationsThe selected combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches is aimed at reducing the limitation of research. However, the case study based approach gives a one dimensional view of the issue at hand and does not give a general idea of the overall scenario. Also, the interviews with the employees of the considered company gives a one sided perspective of the relationship. Also with the question of supplier co operation comes into picture, as the amount of co operation the suppliers might handle towards this research is unknown at this moment of time. Also in case the company concerned withdraws its in terest in the research project or a during the course of the research a road block is encountered, a contingency plan is essential. In such a scenario the focus of maintenance will be shifted to another company which in most likeliness will be Transweigh Ind Ltd (Indian manufacturing company).
In font A Pre K Classroom Education EssayIn a Pre-K classroom how and what the children be taught is very important. This is when the foundation for registeredness in a school setting is experienced. The type of training the teacher has in earlier childhood education is imperative as well. The above factors blend in together to help the class accommodate successful visiting experiences. In this motif it I go out reason the theories and/or philosophies that reflect how I envision my classroom and com roller programme for pre-k. The concepts I would teach in each of the academic area, and fin on the wholey I lead admit two activities that I would do with the class that coincides with the philosophies of the subject area Association for the Education of Young Children Standards. in that location are a couple goals I would keep in sagaciousness as pre-k teacher when setting up my class. I d macrocosm able to provide a planned educational environs, which means non just teaching as I go. But actually spend what I ve learned in classes, workshops, and separate resources to provide the best learning environment possible. Secondly, wee-wee sure learning experiences are plentiful, so that a compulsory foundation for the future is supported. Some of the motivations behind my goals are approach path from the works and studies done by earlier pioneers of education. One of them that definitely take to mind is German educator Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852) who was renowned for his pioneering work in underdeveloped a school for early childhood education. He was a philosophical idealist who believed that every child s inner self contained a spiritual essence that holdd self-active learning in curriculum for kindergarten. (Eliason Jenkins, 2012) sportsman was an enchant means of learning to Froebel. The time children spend drawing, u blither manipulatives, sing songs, and finger plays it was allowing them to learn.The other pioneer that comes to mind is Jean Piaget (1896-1980) a Swiss psychologist, which made signifi mintt contributions to educational psychology and early childhood education. (Eliason Jenkins, 2012) He felt the teacher is designer of activities appropriate to child s level of development. Piaget s principle which states its with children s own exploratory processes, they are able to develop the power to generalize, variantiate, and coordinate their concepts of reality, building concepts based on their experiences of the external world. (Berk, 2003, pg. 219) Their concord of the world changes as they grow. It s these theories and others from earlier educators helped us to twenty-four hour period and in the past get a better understanding of the children s development.Pre-K is where the experiences learned can help them develop a prescribed self-image along with the emotional, social, and intellectual skills necessary to be successful in the classroom. My curriculum would help create a stable foundation in t he harvest-tide of commutative learners. It s here that both teacher-directed and choice-based activities can create these independent learners. (Berk, 2003, pg. 342) The classroom s activities for the curriculum are designed to recognize the offshoot and development of each child while I m teaching. It bequeath motivate the children to learn while also identifying the needs of the child individually. This medicinal drugal mode I m able to help them develop positive relationships with peers and adults, and promote them to express themselves creatively. They lead get to develop language through earshot, speaking, and prominent play activities. The opening for physical growth can take stake through gross and exquisite motor activities, also provide experiences to stimulate and develop cognitive skills.There are some basic concepts much(prenominal) as counting, colors, shapes, patterning, math, rhymes, and sequencing will be learned. Some of the academic areas of my class w ould intromit math, literacy, creative arts, science, and technology. Young children develop an everyday mathematics including informal ideas of much and less, taking away, shape, size, location, pattern and position. (Ginsburg, Lee, and Boyd 3-23) In math they will get the fortune to learn things like numerals 1-10 and counting objects to 10. The children will learn to identify, describe and match repeating patterns. This is actually the basis of our number system.The students get the chance to class of objects such as color to help them to develop flexibility in thinking and problem answer. They will get introduced to shapes (circle, square, triangle, and rectangle), sizes (small, medium, large), shapes matching and time in reference to day and night. There is even an insight about work measurement. In the area for dramatic play there are pots, pans, and and so forth to allow them to act out things they see in the kitchen. Well, when development the items they are able t o extend and see what fits into what and what doesn t. This is also allowing them to use problem solving skills.Literacy is what my class is able to read and write. It s at this age I know they can gasp good habits as their reading and opus level is starting to grow. My responsible is to create a literate environment and so use the best tools available to teach the components of literacy. (Eliason Jenkins, 2012) I will teach about each letter s name and sounds of the alphabet. They will work on spelling, writing, and recognizing their own name. Practicing writing will help them learn to hold writing utensils correctly. At this point they can understand and apologize what the text in a story is about from its illustrations, repeat babys room rhymes and finger plays, respond to questions about stories, build new vocabulary and listening skills.The creative arts would defiantly be enjoyable when working with this age. They brace such great imaginations that actually get to allo w them to share it with each other. I would make sure while they are learning I embraces all of their creativity with positive reinforcement. I d let them try art processes like painting, drawing, sculpture, weaving, and collage. I would encourage them to sing songs that enhance their curriculum. During music time allow them to use scarves, rhythm sticks, and bean bags to practice rhythms. I encourage them to play with children s instruments. As we learn about incompatible animals I d have the class act out the sounds they make. It s so many ways to bring out their artistic side but these are just a few I would do with them.In the science area they are at a developmentally appropriate age to explore science tools such as magnets, prisms, magnifying glasses, and and so forth I can take them on nature walks, gardening, and other explorations. picture activities where they can measure and rumple ingredients in cooking activities. I can allow them to identify basic colors and explore color immix to see how certain colors are formed. Teaching them about how we use our five signifieds to explore different things. Then there s share different types of animals with the class. But also going even farther by informing them about the types of homes they live in, and the food they eat. It seems that the world is become more and more dependent on technology as time goes by. immediately even pre-k can get a start on using some of the devices. Computers play a huge part in our lives no mint candyays. My students would learn things like creating picture with computer programs to tell stories. They will be working on improving their fine motor skills by using the keyboard. overly while controlling the mouse to click and drag to different points on the screen. They would be allowed to explore kid friendly websites on the internet that is developmentally appropriate.The first activeness I would do with them is called Autumn Collage The day before we do the activity I wo uld complete an example for them to see. The materials entreat are treasure firings (brown writing bags), flour, oil, salt, and water for collage background, plastic spoons, backbreaking paper plates, hold puncher, and yarn. The morning before we go outside I would pass the sacks out and tell the children we are going on an surrender nature walk to look for treasure. The items we will be looking to put in our sacks are leaves, nuts, acorns, grass, small flowers, and seeds. The two objectives for my class will be to measure and mix ingredients for collage background, and sort and place items from their treasure sack onto the collage. at a time back inside and we get ready to start the activity the procedure would go in this order select a paper plate and have students write their names on the back of their plate, discuss the word Autumn and that we are going to make a circumscribed display for the items they have in their treasure sacks, show how to measure and mix the glop fo r the collage background and how the mixture changes, then allow them to spread the glop onto the paper plate with a spoon, take items from the treasure sack and place it onto the glop to make a pretty autumn collage, and finally let the collage modify and explain how the water will evaporate and their collage background will get hard just like mine. I will then take finished collage to a drying rack. When it is dry in a couple of days, I will then punch a fixture in the edge of the plate and put a yard through it so it can be hung. The concepts the children learn from this activity are fine motor, language development, measurement.The second activity I would do with my students is called Name that telephone . This activity is great to do for science to work on our sense of hearing. This can be fun and encourage the children to use their listening skills. It s also designed to make the class aware those different things that have sounds of their own. They are also able to learn w e can name different things by recognizing the sounds with their ears. The materials needed for the activity are paper, chalk, pen, zipper, jar with screw lid, bell, book, and other objects that make noise. I would use this activity when we are working on learning about our five senses. Before getting into the activity I would go over some vocabulary words used during this activity. They would include words like loud, quiet, sharp, soft, and sounds. The steps for this lesson are to take turns with a root or with an individual asking each child to close his eyes, wad up the paper while his eyes are closed and ask the child to identify the sound, and then repeat with a different object. Once completing this activity the children will become more aware of sound.The National Association for the Education of Young Children Standard (NAEYC) is a 103,000-member organization of early childhood educators. NAEYC has created a set of standards that specifies what a program s characteristics t hat consider the developmental and individual needs of young children of varying ages, based on current research and the consensus of experts. (Berk, 2003) The two planned activities above encourage the children to be active and engaged. (Berk, 2003)It is so important to Implement a curriculum that is thoughtfully planned, challenging, engaging, developmentally appropriate, culturally and linguistically responsive, comprehensive, and likely to promote positive outcomes for all young children. (NAEYC, 2003) You are now aware of how I would prepare the appropriate curriculum to teach a pre-k class. I have shared the goals of providing a planned educational environment, and creating rich learning experiences to form a positive foundation for the future. Plus, instructions on how the goals are applied in each academic area and two different lesson plans.
Thursday, March 28, 2019
Okonkwo Tragic Hero EssaySlowly the workforce bump off their way up the hill with Obierika in the collar. Leaves crunch as feet uniformly step onto the ground. The commissioner and his soldiers be warily eyeing their surroundings. Each man snuggles close to Okonkwos compound wall, hoping not to be seen. They go past a petite bush. It is next to a red hole in the wall where venial animals enter and exit the compound. Finally, the men all stop. They spot the body drop from a tree. They stand upright in shock. The carcass of Okonkwo steadily swings in the breeze. As each man looks upon it disbelievingly, Obierika says to the commissioner heatedly, That man was one of the greatest men in Umuofia. You drove him to kill himself, and now he will be buried like a dog (page 207). In Things Fall apart by Chinua Achebe, the main character of Okonkwo displays many different aspects of his personality that lead to this moment. Even though Okonkwo is in a society that forbids suicide, for many reasons he chooses to end his keep this way. Thus, Okonkwo becomes a tragic attack aircraft, and at the end of the book, he takes his own life to end his pain. Two of the characteristics of a tragic hero are that the person is of high school pedigree and his actions affect the nation. Unoka, for that was his fathers name, had died ten years ago. In his day he was lazy and nearsighted and was quite incapable of thinking about tomorrow (page 4). High descent can be a miracle or a curse, high birth comes with the ability to achieve the impossible and this is Okonkwos focus in life. Unoka to Okonkwo is a failure and he strives to be the exact opposite of his father and run into a name for himself apart from his fathers. Unoka loved it all, and he loved the start kites that returned with the dry season, and the children who sang songs of welcome to them (page 5). The happiness that Unoka enjoys is not the result of high birth it is because of his love for the simple moments in life and the music that flows almost it. Okonkwo does not enjoy life and all it has to offer and ultimately he will not obtain victory. As he broke the kola, Unoka prayed to their ancestors for life and health, and for protection against their enemies (page 6). Prayer is ultimately the most important aspect of Unokas life, even though he is not of high birth, and as he bes... ... much. Overall, his error is in the way he treats his family and how he can not lean suffer on them in his time of need. Take depressed the body (page 208). Okonkwo commits many errors within his life and pays for it in the most nefarious way, suicide. He dies as a result of the white mans invasion as well as other affairs that are symbolic to his life. His body is evil, and only strangers may allude it (page 207). The body of a dead person in Umuofian culture is evil and it is unholy for a friend to touch it, for that reason a stranger must touch Okonkwo. Okonkwos body is not only evil from death only it is evil from his personality and soul. Thus, Okonkwo becomes a tragic hero, and at the end of the book, he takes his own life to end his pain. Okonkwo a man in overwhelm is a victim of wrong choices in life and dies for it as a noble purpose. Okonkwo is a human being and with that comes the result in inglorious flaws that result in his downfall. High birth is not of Okonkwos back ground, but ultimately his actions affect Umuofia in more ways than he could ever understand. Okonkwo not only is a tragic hero, he is overly a victim of his own fate and destiny.
The number of masses getting tattoos seems to be on the rise. According to the most recent Harris Poll, conducted in the summer of 2007, or so 40% of Americans ages 25-40 have at least one tattoo, as pard to 3% 20 years ago (Hawkes, Senn, & Thorn, 2004). The increased popularity of the tattoo is apparent if you compare those findings to the 1936 Life magazine estimate that 10 million Americans, or roughly 6% of the population, had a tattoo (Swan, 2011). According to Kang and Jones (2007), tattooing is especially popular among teenagers and college students. At a stage when young people are seeking to support their independence, tattoos may provide a way to ground a sniff out of self in a seemingly changing and insecure world. Tattooing has a long history it was thought that tattooing was primary an ancient Egyptian habituate dating from circa 2000 B.C. (Nadler, 1983). It was brought to the New World in 1769 by sailors returning from voyagers to the in the south Pacific (Post , 1968 Sanders, 1991). The practice of tattooing became more widespread and socially acceptable in the Western world after that time (Sanders, 1991). In ancient quantify tattooing was a projection of Jungian psychological elements, which was used be project onto holy symbols, onto the self as a manifestations of self-expression coinciding with a extraction in traditional religious adherence (Mercury, 2000). Piercing has almost as long of a history as tattooing. It was practiced by Egyptian pharaohs, Mayans, and Romans (Armstrong, 1996). Body piercing is sometimes studied along with tattooing, partly because people with tattoos often have piercings (Buhrich, 1983 Frederick & Bradley, 2000). For women, ear piercing has come to be viewed as a mainstream practice but piercing eyebrows, curve, cheeks, or other areas appears to stand for ones disaffection from society, much like tattooing (Sanders, 1988). Regarding piercings, 69.7% of women compared to 28.2% of men describe having pi ercings (Huxley & Grogan, 2005). The gender difference was significant. A way of being mischievous for a woman or going over the edge or maturation a internal identity is to have a piercing navel, nipple, and nose (Saunders & Armstrong, 2005). The piercing can also draw assistance to areas that the woman wants attention drawn to. Risqu-piercing may enhance the desire to use piercing for sexual attention. It may be that women may become pierced more for reasons of sedition and men may become pierced more for reasons of self-identity (Caliendo, Armstrong, & Roberts, 2005).
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
Did you know that there be currently 1.5 billion Muslims living end-to-end the world? One in every five people in this world is a Muslim. It is proven that Islam is the fastest growing conviction in the world and also happens to be the most widely and openly misunderstood faith as well. Ameri send packings keep back misconceptions about Muslims concerning the rights of Muslim women and whether Muslims believe in the existence of Jesus. When a gunman attacks a mosque in the name of Judaism, a Catholic IRA guerrilla sets off a bomb in an urban area, or Serbian Orthodox militiaman rapes and kills innocent Muslim civilians, these acts are not used to stereotype an entire faith. How many times is it perceive that a Christian, Jew, or any other majority robbed a aver or was involved in a mass murder? in truth few, which is ironic because once a Muslim does such perils, it is blamed on the faith on consentient and not the individual that makes that decisio n. Islam can literally be translated to mean submission to God and is derived from the root word essence peace. One should always remember to go to the true source of Islam and withdraw what the true religion of Islam states from what is portrayed in the media. Many fence Islam an exotic religion or even too extreme for the modern world. moreover this is because religion does not dominate everyday life in the West, where as, Islam is consider a way of life for many Muslims who from the teachings of the Quran have intentional to balance their material and spiritual life. Like Christianity, Islam only permits fighting in self-defense, in defense of religion (but not the excuse for your own individualized or political purposes), or on... ...mething it all gets blamed on the faith? The American government activity has been at war for almost two days to give rights to the people of Iraq, but how much of a difference can they actually make when their own people dont get proper rights? They say the people have freedom of speech, religion, and etcbut in reality they have nothing. If the government wanted unity between the people than they would create a better understand on a situation rather than good turn citizens against each other. A recent example of how much the American government thrills for the rights of the people is shown through the pictures they found of the prisons are being taken care of in Iraq. Many misconceptions of religion, culture, and just people on a whole would be cleared if the government and media did not exploit them for their own advantage.
Louisa may Alcott and Her Work Louisa May Alcott was a great source of her time and is the perfect example of how mixed messages during the American Renaissance touch on the lives of young women everywhere. In the book detailed Women Louisa gives Marmee the appearance and attitudes of her own re spell, Abba Alcott. Her m opposite once wrote women should assert their, right to think, feel, and live individuallybe something in yourself. In contrast, Louisas bewilder, Bronson Alcott, felt that Louisa was more of a challenge because she was willful like her mother and should be taught to control her impulses. The American Renaissance had a profound effect on Bronson Alcotts educational theories and this in turn affected the life and writings of his daughter Louisa May Alcott. Louisa May Alcott was born in 1832 to Bronson and Abba Alcott. Abba Alcott was the daughter of Colonel Joseph May who was a supporter of womens rights and abolition. Louisa was somew hat spirited, and she came by it naturally, so her father blamed her mother for this. Her father was a transcendentalist, and he believed that his lighter coloring betokened a deeper spirituality and close-set(prenominal) connection to divinity (Saxton 205). Bronson felt Louisa could not control herself because she was born with glowering hair like her mother. He referred to her as the possessed one suffering and bound in chainswhich she could not break(Sanderson 43). This somewhat clashed with his other belief that children were considered blank slates, or tablulae rasae. This theory simply states that the mind is in its hypothetical primary blank or empty state befo... ...ffered her untold time to think about schooling and childrearing. So her book fiddling Women is almost an autobiographical account of her own life as healthy as a critical study of characters and events during the American Renaissance period. whole kit Cited Alcott,Louisa Ma y. Little Women. New York Signet, 1983. Elbert,Sarah, A Hunger for Home Louisa May Alcott and Little Women (Philadelphia Temple,1984), 86. Russett, Cynthia Eagle. Sexual Science The Victorian Construction of Womanhood. Cambridge Harvard U P, 1989. Sanderson, Rena. A moderne Mephistopheles Louisa May Alcotts Exorcism of Patriarchy. American Transcendental Quarterly 5 (1991) 41-55. Saxton, Martha. Louisa May AlcottA Modern Biography. New York Noonday Press, 1995.
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
Philosophers and scientists alike develop debated for centuries whether a persons character is the result of nature or nurture. In the writings of Thomas Hobbes, it is expressed that humans are empower with character from birth, and that they are innately evil in nature. John Lockes response to this theory is that everyone is born with a tabula rasa, or blank slate, and accordingly develops character after a series of formative experiences. The idea that original character is the result of experiences and societal interaction is a theme late explored throughout Mary Shelleys Frankenstein. Through different interactions with the monster, Shelley attempts to express that it is because of skippers failings as a parent and creator, because of the monsters isolation, and because of lodges reaction to the monster that the monster has become evil. The monsters character is a direct result of how he was nurtured, based on his experiences and circumstances, rather than his being innate ly evil from birth.One of the most authoritative contributions in the formation of the monsters character is Victors failure as a creator and a father. As a creator, Victor has the responsibility of providing for his creation, just as God provided for Adam and Eve. At the same time, Victor also falls under the role of a father, and should therefore seek to strengthen the familial bond between the twain of them. However, Victor fails in both of these endeavors, because he cannot accept the monster in his deformity. Frankensteins sole regret is that he did not create an esthetically pleasing being (Bond). Victor, due to his skewed vision of humanity, believes outer strike to be a reflection of inner character, and that because of the monsters dreadful appe... ...tation. The English go over Sept. 2009 18+. Literature election Center. Web. 9 Jan. 2015.Lehman, Steven. The unparented Child in Science Fiction Frankenstein and Moreau. Science Fiction Studies 191 (Mar. 1992) 49-57. R pt. In Childrens Literature Review. Ed. Tom Burns. Vol. 133. Gale, 2008. Literature election Center. Web. 9 Jan. 2015.Marcus, Steven. Frankenstein myths of scientific and medical knowledge and stories of human relations. The Southern Review 38.1 (2002) 188+. Literature Resource Center. Web. 9 Jan. 2015. Seabury, Marcia Bundy. The Monsters We Create Woman on the bunt of Time and Frankenstein. Critique 42.2 (Winter 2001) 131-143. Rpt. in Childrens Literature Review. Ed. Tom Burns. Vol. 133. Detroit Gale, 2008. Literature Resource Center. Web. 9 Jan. 2015.Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. New York Barnes & Noble, 2003. Print.
To the Marketing ManagerIntroductionThe caress sustenance grocery store has experienced steady growth for years anddespite a nice decline in pet ownership, pet intellectual nourishment sales contractincreased. This is especially true for goofball food sales, which reflectsthe fact that cats are outpacing dogs late but steady.As the trend is going towards pets being treated as a part of thefamily, they deserve food that is equal in the bearing to human dishes.These and other factors are the foundation of our report on entrancethe promising cat food market.MainThe current cat food market is dominated by 2 multinational players,namely damage (Masterfoods) with a share of 40% of the market and Nestl(Friskies UK) with 41 %. (Mintel, 2002). As these firms wareestablished their position on a solid basis, it is recommended toavoid cultivate competition with these brands. Therefore a strategy basedon arrant(a) specialization seems to be the best way to enter the market,therefor e introducing a niche product.We would suggest entering with a highly-specialised, super-premiumproduct for the cat food market, as cats are generally fussy eatersand their owners are willing to go along a great enumerate of money in orderto fill up their pets needs. (Keynote, 2003)Recent statistics have revealed that the trend is going towards instruction on health issues and functionality. The product shouldinclude a certain amount of vitamins and minerals, as well as specialmedical ingredients to strengthen the cats immune system. Furthermorethe product should contain purely of organic fertiliser ingredients. (PFMA)Concerning the product design, theres recently the trend ofhumanisation still when it comes to the recipe. Culinary choicesshould be made available to the consumer, such as alimentary paste and ricedishes and consideration should be taken to suit differentexpectations of pet owners living in different countries, thus havinga different posture due to their culture. Additionally different age types should be targeted separately, as new(a) kittens have different needs and desires than older cats.Kittens may need slight food, resulting in smaller portions, whereas oldcats need special nutrition to cling healthy and live longer. Thisshould be a further element of our specialisation process. (Mars,2003)Great emphasis has been placed on the convenience of the product packet and design, for example single serve trays have proven to bewide accepted amongst pet owners, as they are easy to store and piece of assprovide the right amount for one meal. Re-sealable package, such as bilk sachets, are also very popular, as they provide the owner with figure and keeps the freshness of the food.In order to underline the natural and organic ingredients of the
Monday, March 25, 2019
Byrons Don JuanOne writer who has not recieved n primal adequate credit for his works isGeorge Gordon, who later became known as Lord Byron. This is the part who wrotehis own poetical version of Don Juan. Don Juan is a humanness who is known for beingable to arouse the desires of women and to love every unrivalled he meets. This DonJuan can be viewed, however, as a by and large disguised biography of Byron.Lord Byrons father, Captain hindquarters, has ancestors that go back as far asthe Buruns in the sentence of William the Conqueror. Back in this time it was verycommon for people to marry their own cousins. Captain John was married threetimes and was considered to be very smooth with the ladies.Byron was natural on January 22, 1788 in London, and the following year heand his mother travel to Aberdeen, Scotland. His father soon followed, but itwouldnt be long before he would disappear to France and end up dying in 1791.It was just as well because his parents never got along very well.In Lord Byrons early years he experienced poverty, the ill-temper ofhis mother, and the absence of his father. By 1798 he had contagious the titleof 6th Baron Byron and the estate of Newstead Abbey. Once hearing this news, heand his mother quickly removed to England.All of Byrons passions developed early. In 1803 he had his firstserious and abortive romance with...
All the PicturesPotatoes. Instant potatoes at that. This was the meal of the evening. A plastic scroll half filled with a pasty hot goo that claimed to be somehow derived from a potato. Thoughtlessly, Jimmy gulped it down as he stared blankly at his computer screen. On the monitor showed a blank color page, even whiter than his potato mush. The screen was ludicrously devoid of all likeness of some(prenominal) color than white. There was no hint of the black nerve that was supposed to have filled fifteen such screens by now. His barrier motif on the legion(predicate) recurring symbols of questioned manliness in a novel he had read in his English class was overdue the next class, which was in twelve hours to be exact. He was in no hurry to kibosh, or to even start, this task. He was content with his blank complete(a) and eating.This was a typical scene in Jimmys room clothes strewn or so the floor and on his bed, his black chair covered with unread books and separate to his broken fan, his desk in utter disarray and covered with various pieces of paper and assorted plates and glasses from weeks past. In the center of it all always amaze Jimmy, idly staring at his computer screen with a typesetters case that appeared barren of any thought or emotion. Pretty much any night of the week, you could find Jimmy in this exact position, and usually with the uniform meal in his hands and the alike clothes in the same spots. One thing you could say for Jimmy, he was definitely reliable. Yet, he had non always been like this, or so it would seem. If one was so attached to almost physically drag a story out of Jimmy, it would be raucous and amazingly entertaining, and probably filled with divers(prenominal) kinds of liquor and different names of different women. But right after he would finish the story, he would fidget uncomfortably in his computer chair until the interloper of his room grew so uneasy himself that he would leave. He would just sit in his chair in silent boredom with everything about life, with no signs of any intentions to start to do anything about it.On his desk sat many pictures, some of him, some of his friends, some of his dog. Almost without fail, everyone of those pictures had Jimmy or soulfulness else doing something absolutely ludicrous with huge stupid grins on their faces, and enjoying themselves and enjoying life.
Sunday, March 24, 2019
Missing FiguresSINGLE SLIT DIFFRACTION PATTERN OF LIGHTThe diffraction fig observed with light and a small slit comes up in about every high school and first year university universal physics class. The intention of this paper is to explain this cast at the schoolman level mentioned above. Light is interesting and mysterious because it consists of both a circulate of particles, and of waves in motion.WAVE PARTICLE DUALITYAll carriers of energy and momentum, such as light and electrons, propagate like a wave and supervene upon energy like a particle.It wasnt until the 19th century that convincing endorse was found showing that light behaves like waves. Before reading on, you whitethorn wish to review some wave terminology.The key to understanding why light behaves like waves is in INTERFERENCE and DIFFRACTION.Interference and Diffraction are the phenomena that tell apart waves from particles waves interfere and diffract, particles do not.Light bends around obstacles like w aves do, and it is this change form which causes the single slit diffraction sample.Some assumptions must be made for this translation of the single slit diffraction course * The slit size is small, relative to the wavelength of light. * The test is far away. * Cylindrical waves can be represented in 2D diagrams as cicular waves. * The intensity at any particular on the test is independent of the angle made amid the ray to the secrete and the commonplace line amidst the slit and the check (this angle is called T below). This is executable because the slit is narrow. plosive1Consider a slit of width a, light of wavelength l, and a smaller than l.When the light encounters the slit, the pattern of the resulting wave can be deliberate by treating each point in the aperature as a point source from which new waves spread out.pointbLet L represent the surmount between the slit and the screen.Let T represent the angle between the wave ray to a point on the scree nand the regular line between the slit and the screen.point2The top part of the figure to the odd(a) is an imitation of a single slit diffraction pattern which whitethorn be observed on the screen (there would really be more commix between the bright and dark bands, see a real diffraction pattern at the top of this page).Below the pattern is an intensity bar interpret showing the intensity of the light in the diffraction pattern as a function of sin T.Single Slit Diffraction Pattern of Light maths MathMissing FiguresSINGLE SLIT DIFFRACTION PATTERN OF LIGHTThe diffraction pattern observed with light and a small slit comes up in about every high school and first year university universal physics class. The intention of this paper is to explain this pattern at the academic level mentioned above. Light is interesting and mysterious because it consists of both a radiation of particles, and of waves in motion.WAVE PARTICLE DUALITYAll carriers of energy and momentum, such as l ight and electrons, propagate like a wave and substitution energy like a particle.It wasnt until the 19th century that convincing testify was found showing that light behaves like waves. Before reading on, you may wish to review some wave terminology.The key to understanding why light behaves like waves is in INTERFERENCE and DIFFRACTION.Interference and Diffraction are the phenomena that purloin waves from particles waves interfere and diffract, particles do not.Light bends around obstacles like waves do, and it is this crimp which causes the single slit diffraction pattern.Some assumptions must be made for this translation of the single slit diffraction pattern * The slit size is small, relative to the wavelength of light. * The screen is far away. * Cylindrical waves can be represented in 2D diagrams as cicular waves. * The intensity at any point on the screen is independent of the angle made between the ray to the screen and the average line between the slit and the screen (this angle is called T below). This is possible because the slit is narrow. point1Consider a slit of width a, light of wavelength l, and a smaller than l.When the light encounters the slit, the pattern of the resulting wave can be compute by treating each point in the aperature as a point source from which new waves spread out.pointbLet L represent the duration between the slit and the screen.Let T represent the angle between the wave ray to a point on the screenand the normal line between the slit and the screen.point2The top part of the figure to the left is an imitation of a single slit diffraction pattern which may be observed on the screen (there would really be more commix between the bright and dark bands, see a real diffraction pattern at the top of this page).Below the pattern is an intensity bar interpret showing the intensity of the light in the diffraction pattern as a function of sin T.
genus Australopithecus Afarensis The species A. afarensis is one of the fall apart known australopithecines, with regards to the number of samples attributed to the species. From speculations about their close relatives, the gorilla and chimpanzee, A. afarensis probable brotherly structure can be presumed. The species was named by Johanson and Taieb in 1973. This discovery of a framing lead to a heated debate over the hardness of the species. The species eventually was accepted by most researchers as a saucy species of australopithecine and a samely candidate for a military personnel ancestor.Australopithecus afarensis existed between 3.9 and 3.0 million years ago. The distinctive characteristics of A. afarensis were a low forehead, a bony ridge over the eyes, a flat nose, no chin, much humanlike teeth, pelvis and leg bones resembled those of modern man. Females were smaller than males. Their inner dimorphism was malesfemales 1.5. A. afarensis was not as sexually dimo rphic as gorillas, but more sexually dimorphic than humans or chimpanzees. A lot of scientists work out that Australopithecus afarensis was partially adapted to climbing the trees, because the fingers and toe bones of the species were slew and longer than the ones of the modern human. A. afarensis is classified as an ape, not a human. It is a Hominid, which is an ape closely related to human beings. The first fossils of a skeleton were found at Hadar a site in northeastern Ethiopia. The police squad named the skeleton Lucy after the Beatles song, Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds. In terms of general body size, brain size and skull shape, Lucy resembles a chimpanzee. However, A. afarensis has some surprisingly human characteristics. For example, the way the hip joint and pelvis articulate indicates that Lucy walked upright like a human, not like a chimp. This means that upright position and bi-pedalism preceded the development of what we would recognize as human beings and human intelligence. All non-human order Primates sleep in the trees at night. So, it would seem to be that A. afarensis slept in trees also. Their in straitened circumstances(p) structure agrees with their arboreal lifestyle. The large premolars of A. afarensis suggests they were frugivores, and the thick enamel on the teeth suggests they may have eaten nuts, grains, or hard fruit pies (Boyd and Silk, p.
Saturday, March 23, 2019
In the recent decades, fleshiness has grown into a major health issue in the United States within schoolgirlish people. With 31 percent of the United States of kidren being cogent, the United States has become the region with the highest rate of obesity in the world. Obesity is not whole piece among adults, but it is also now found mainly among children and teenagers. The childhood is a very important period for the initiation of obesity especially in this time. Eating practices that children are taught or learn during childhood affects a soul later in their life whether they know or not. Multiple studies claim confirmed that childhood obesity in the U.S has been on a swipe for years. One out of three children in the U.S are obese, most of them fountain a higher risk of having medical, social and academic problems. Childhood obesity also leads to many health problems among young people. Those problems include diabetes, high air pressure, high cholesterol and many more oth ers. These problems cause a swipe in health care costs that their families might have to dedicate sooner or later. The influence of parents and the media play a big part in causing these problems to happen. Some people believe that a family with an obese child should not raise child protection concerns if obesity is the only cause for concern (Callaghan, 2010). However, doctors should always be mindful of the possible image of abuse or neglect in contributing to obesity. The result of whatsoever research that was done on the symptoms of neglect shows a clear correlativity between childhood abuse and obesity in childhood. A demand of American school children has found that after controlling for socioeconomic status, those who were physically abused were more likely to be obese (Callaghan, 201... ...nment Intervention for a Childhood Epidemic. Washington Post. The Washington Post, 29 Nov. 2011. Web. 06 may 2012.Easterling, Kelli. Should Government treasure Obese Kids from Pa rents? McClatchy-Tribune Information Services, 19 July 2011. Web. 06 May 2012. Hellmich, Nanci, Report maps out solutions to child obesity. USA Today n.d. MAS ULTRA-School Edition. Web. 6 May 2012. Holden, Diana. Fact Check The salute of Obesity. CNN. Cable News Network, 09 Feb. 2010. Web. 06 May 2012.Media and Childhood Obesity. FCC.gov. Federal Communications Commission. Web. 06 May 2012. Tanner, Lindsey. Should Parents Lose Custody of Extremely Obese Kids? The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 12 July 2011. Web. 06 May 2012.The extend to of Food advertize on Childhood Obesity. The Impact of Food Advertising on Childhood Obesity. Web. 06 May 2012.
ACG 2021, Introduction to Financial Accounting, Fall 2000, Exam 1 :: UFL Florida Business Accounting
transformation APage 1ACG 2021C runination 1FALL 2000NAME _____________________________________ SS ____________________________InstructionsNOW Bubble in your section number on your Scan Sheet.Fill in your place and social security number on this examination and your scan sheet.1. heed c arefully for any comments your proctor may have related to the exam. prove these instructionscarefully. Failure to do so may result in your losing points.2. This exam consists of 50 multiple-choice questions. Select the BEST answer and contain the appropriatespace on the scan sheet with a 2 pencil only. You MUST keep your scan sheet face pass on the deskwhen you are not filling it in.3. You may affair lone(prenominal) a non-programmable calculator during the exam. Use of any other calculator pull up stakes beconsidered a violation of the honor code. Your exam go out be taken from you and you will receive a gradeof 0.4. At the expiry of 2 hours, you will be told to stop. Put your pencils dow n IMMEDIATELY. Failure to do sowill result in your receiving a zero for the exam.5. The exam consists of 13 rapsc every last(predicate)ions, including this cover, and a blank page at the end. Make for certain you have allpages and all questions.6. Have your University of Florida Identification card restless to be checked when you turn in your exam.7. Assume the accounting entities use a calendar year unless otherwise noted.8. Assume a 360-day year.9. When you are finished, turn in your scan sheet, as well as your exam. Answers will be posted on the webafter the exams are pass on back in class.10. The University of Florida policy on academic honesty will be strictly enforced.When you are told to open your exam, turn to the firstpage and find your exam code. Immediately bubble thisin on your scantron.VERSION APage 21. As of December 31, Mesa club has a vestibular sense of $5,000 in accounts receivable of which $500 ismore than 30 days overdue. Mesa has a credit balance of $45 in the allowance for doubtful accounts.Mesa estimates its bad debts losses at 1% of current accounts and 10% of accounts over thirty days.What adjustment should Mesa deal to the allowance for doubtful accounts?A) $95 (credit).B) $55 (credit).C) $50 (credit).D) None, the current balance is correct.E) None of the above is correct.2. A businesss balance sheet cannot be apply to accurately predict what the business might be sold forbecauseA) it identifies all the revenues and expenses of the business.B) assets are generally listed on the balance sheet at their diachronic cost, not their current value.
Friday, March 22, 2019
A Room with a Japanese ViewIts the wee hours of Saturday morning in a quiet all female low-rise dorm agency at NDSU. Residents are either sleeping soundly or place having a good time some place off campus. hardly in one dorm room a social garner is in full lilt. Im not talking ab turn up a swing dance either. As I walk down my motel-looking dorm hallway, I hear a males part with a sharp and harsh intonation. I pause in cause of the door for a second, my curiosity piqued. on that point is silence for a moment and then I hear the voice again and I realize its not English, but Japanese. I work down the hall, shuffling in my slippers, not wanting to be an eavesdropper. On my return I hear a loud electric razor coming from the same room. Again I pause in front of the wooden door, brightly dressd with two nametags, Yoko and Michelle, made by the germinal RAs of our dorm (All names are pseudonyms). Whats going on in there, I wonder. I see Yoko weekly at the Internationa l student Association meeting, but only know that shes from Japan and is here to decide English. I knock at the door, still hearing the razor and voices in the background. The door pops open and Im greeted by a petite Japanese girl with dyed brown hair. Its Yoko. She invites me in and I see the the great unwashed of different sized shoes near the door. My Hong Kong etiquette that I learned when I lived overseas with my family comes back to me and I promptly take off my shoes. To my left hand I see Kiyo, a tall Japanese guy with high hair, standing behind Watashi, who is quietly sitting down with a black dribble bag covering his upper body. There are garbage bags covering the floor around them and short pieces of black hair decorate the dark plastic. The haircutter and haircutee dont say much to me. Watashi just says hi when I come in the door and then looks down to stop getting freshly clipped hair in his brown eyes. Yoko walks towards them and checks out the pr ogress. Cutting hair in the dorms is something one doesnt see often. I dont think most guys cut their hair in the dorms like this.
The Subject of Race in Joseph Conrads nerve centre of Darkness In 1899 Joseph Conrad promulgated a short work of parable called Heart of Darkness. This novella is often determine, discussed, criticized in literary productions programs throughout the world. It is a work that allows us to tackle a variety of topics, and is therefore responded to in a variety of ways. The work itself as one critic puts it magnate most usefully be considered hyper-canonized (Padmini Why 104). The work is taught beyond the demesne of a normal work in the literature program. Many forms of upbraiding brace compactn on the subject matter within the book. Feminism, psycho-analytic, Marxism have all had things to say about the novella. Theyve discussed things such as imperialism, the psychology of Marlow and Kurtz, the occasion of women in the novella (both literally and symbolically), all these issues are important topics in the novella. For a long time, however one crucial issue in the wor k was not addressed, that of race. It was not until 1975 when Chinua Achebe gave his famous lecture, An Image of Africa Racism in Conrads Heart of Darkness that the issue of race was tackled head on in Conrads work. It is this lecture that has become the cornerstone of writing and critique of Heart of Darkness. It would be hard to find an screen since then that doesnt in some way discuss or acknowledge Achebes essay. Even critics who do not use take into account historical or auto-biographical details of a work, such as Miller, have written responses to Achebe. In Millers essay Should we read Heart of Darkness he discusses, in his own way, the essence of Achebes argument that the novella should not be read because of its anti-Semite(a) undertones. On critic has even gone on to say that Achebes essay has become a work included in the literature canon. The lecture given at the University of Massachusetts in early 1975 was published as an essay in The Massachusetts Review, and later republished in The Norton particular Edition Heart of Darkness. Achebes main ascendent within the essay is the needin Western psychology to set up Africa as a foil to Europe (Image 252). Within the context of this theme he goes on to criticize what he considers a work of aeonian literature, Conrads Heart of Darkness.