Thursday, February 28, 2019
Amy Lin Mr. Lieu English 1 H 7 December 2012 The Tyrant of Thebes Henry eight of England was infamous for executing people who contested his views. He was a unkind ruler and about of his citizens were compliant to him due to consternation. In Antigone, a play written by Sophocles, the actions of major power Creon are closely akin to Henry VII of England. nance Creon declares a rule that prohibits the burial of his nephew, Polynices, because Polynices had betrayed the city of Thebes and started a rebellion. Creon is enraged when his niece, Antigone, defies his decree and sentences her to death by entombment.Creon is magisterial, selfish, and stubborn in the ways that he commits parlay blasphemy by letting Polynices body decompose unburied and cruelly entombing Antigone liveborn. As a king, Creon is inarguably tyrannical. When he persecutes Antigone, she boldly points out, lucky tyrantsthe perquisites of power unkind power to do and say w shunver pleases them. She makes it clear that Creon is abusive of his imperious powers. In addition, Creon refuses to submit to creator. His son, Haemon, shares the perspectives of Thebes citizens with him and reminds him that Thebes is no city at all, owned by one man alone. Creon dismisses the wise reminders of his son by brusquely declaring, the city is the kings Thats the law When Haemon attempts to use reason and elaborate on the moral reasons as to why Antigone defied Creons decree, Creon refuses to necessitate them simply because of his hubris. In fact, Creon realizes Antigones obligations of honoring her b consumeher, yet he cries, Im not about to prove myself as a liar, no not to my people, Im going to kill her Creon is a ruthless tyrant who does not scruple to destroy anyone who gets in the ways of his tyrannical rule and repute over Thebes.As a father, Creon is undeniably selfish. He does not consider his sons feelings or the possibility that his ruthless actions whitethorn affect his sons life. Creo n is easy aware of the fact that Haemon is in love with Antigone, and yearns to marry her. Yet, he still sends Antigone to a cave and entombs her to death, which is decidedly a cruel and painful way for her to die. After Creon sends Antigone to death, he assumes that in that respect are other fields for Haemon to plow. His selfishness as a father causes Haemon to hate him and attempt to kill him before committing suicide.Creon ignored the plead of Haemon for the bride he yearned for and intemperately stated, you will never marry her, not while shes alive. In a sense, Creon encouraged his son to kill himself because he told him to go past up loving Antigone while she is alive. The death of Haemon was unless expected. Haemon grew disgusted by his fathers selfish and narcissistic thinking. As well as being selfish, Creon is also stubborn and refuses to show empathy in his nieces endeavors. He fails to consider the well-being of anyone other than himself and his reputation as a r uler.Even when he is presented with reason, Creon does not hesitate to withdraw his cruel decision of sentencing his niece, Antigone, to death. When Antigone attempts to explain her obligations of burying Polynices, Creon refuses to alter his cruel sentencing simply because of Antigones gender in society. When the citizens of Thebes reason that Antigone should not die, Creon firmly states, better to fall from power, if fall we must, at the manpower of a mannever be rated inferior to a woman. King Creon does not divvy up about the opinions of his subjects, nor his niece.He only rules to uphold his own opinions that only the opinions of people that conveniently accommodate his pride. Furthermore, he threatens to punish his sentry for deliverance unfavorable news to him. Although the sentry did not commit a crime, or act immorally, Creon tells his sentry that he will send him to death. Clearly, Creon does not care about justice, and is content as long as he has soulfulness to bl ame. King Creon of Thebes is closely akin to the tyrannical King Henry VIII of England in the way of being ruthless tyrants. Both tyrants assigned their subjects to pain deaths for holding values differing from their own.Creon was unquestionably immoral to his subjects, son, and his niece. Yet, he was in perform denial of the fact while he still had time to spare himself. Furthermore, Creon claimed to be religious, yet, he completed double blasphemy by allowing his nephew rot in the city he was once proud of, as well as sending his niece to a slow and excruciating death of entombment. non only did Creon ruin the reputation that he yearned for, he initiated his own declination by condemning anyone who he perceived might tarnish his reputation as well as anyone who did not share his views.
The nationalities rooted in different traditions and by chance owed something to old trunks differences Latinos and barbarians, took shape especially the divergence of economic pursuals and intrinsic conditions of Italy and Germany. Italian Humanism meant more than a break with the past, Italy was consumed in known extravagance and soon re glowering to agriculture and to the spirit of mediaeval life. Life fundamentally offered the Italian humanist enjoyment and creation, the Christian scheme gave way to a Greek morality, in which life was an art, freed from any sense of obligation.The religious interest was not very present at least we want to take to task about a religion of beauty. His warning was universal man amply rounded personality of a Leonardo. I tried to absorb everything and became syncretistic culture, retaining the opposing elements of Roman and Greek Christians in reconciling universal symbolism. Zeus, Jupiter, and perfection really meant it. This ideal was bo und to remain aristocratic, without much anchor in popular sentiment and produced a high class and cosmopolitan artisan who took easily to the envestida of the counter.The northwestern, however, seemed to have the old spirit was however felt the north where an impulse of the forces would dominate the new era, the north broke with the church service and turned to industry trade, science . Life offered the German humanist work and self-discipline, the German turned rather to the moral Roman life was a stoical discipline, a job and a vocation remained deeply religious obligations became fifty-fifty more ethical than supernatural. It is dedicated to education and scholarship.More democratic, seeking her ideal as a member of an ordered society and not as an independent personality. Before him stood flight ahead fraternal society work, could not combine the various elements and see the universal in the multiplication of symbols multiplicity of symbols is a big difference between the imagination of the great Italian painters and Durer, the Dutch and Flemish. Humanists Nordic passed gradual stages of faith illustrated medieval cosmopolitanism and urban.Touched by the Italian scholarship, dropped out and worked for a scholastic education reform without criticizing the church system. Modernity and tragedy of Erasmus The modern spirit sympathize more with the entropy group, and especially with Erasmus, representative ideals, having been shriveled by 200 years overdue to the reform, finally flourished in naturalism and humanism of the eighteenth century. Erasmo was definitely the human-centered ideal both their faults as virtues. Its narrower interests reflect limitations of humanistic attitude to the deeper forces of the time.unconcerned by the wonderful art of his generation, without interest in the new realness that would in the eyes of men, and very hostile to the scientific interest because it shifted the inspirit of the human problems of morality. His big gest concern heading into the past, not the future, rather represented tolerance, atonement and meditation. It was witty and urban, with a charming conservatism. Finished destroying old prejudices, demolishing the medieval order, had nothing to offer except a rather negative weird liberalism.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
INTRODUCTIONBackgroundThis report was created to present the findings of a theme aimed to curve the impact of the large number of workers we employ on local anaesthetic transaction. Many city and county expatriate officials ar interested in exploring ship drive outal to solve the occupation issues. The look in this report analyzes the commuting patterns of our 43,500 employees. trading is a daily battle for many commuters and has become a b new(prenominal) in our area.ProblemFor many pack, the commute to work is disastrous. It is not anomalous to hear of large number leaving hours early for work simply because of relations. Although traffic can be found mostly anywhere, the area surrounding our ships society is unbearable. We are known as the largest private employer in this area, employing everywhere 43,000 people. This fact, fool with normal traffic patterns, creates much more traffic in other areas and problems with commuting.PurposeThe purpose of this report is to alleviate the problems with traffic due to the spirited number of people we employ. The first step in this process is analyzing the handss exile habits and attitudes.ScopeThis report will focus in the main on the emigration habits of the men, as well as their opinion on possible motleys.DISCUSSIONEmployee Carpool HabitsOne simple way to help quail traffic problems is the use of carpooling. The idea of employee carpooling is simple-employees who live in close congener to each other commute to work together, using only hotshot car. Four people carpooling together takes three cars off the road that would have been there had they not carpooled. Carpooling is also mutually beneficial to the employees. Many however a large sum of money and they areno protracted contendd to physically drive to and from work every day. An added benefit is the 85 million gallons of gas saved every year by carpoolers. The directs of the research are displayed in Figure 1. ground on the re search make at our company, 23% of employees carpool to work every day and 10% report that they are carpooling on certain days of the week. A scummy percentage (2%) showed that these workers randomly carpool. The volume of the employees reported that they never carpool. presently, 64% of our employees are not carpooling at all. Increasing the amount of carpooling being done from erect one-third of the employee population to half or more will result in great change. As stated before, carpooling is a very informal and convenient way to get many cars off the roads with undersize change and has much benefit for both the individuals carpooling and the function of these populated areas.Employee purpose of familiar TransportationPublic transportation provides a convenient and gimcrack alternative to regular commuting. There are many faces of domain transportation including buses, trains, subways and ferries. These provide commuters with a range of pickings to decide what one w orks go around for their commute. Results for a survey on the frequency of worldtransportation use by the employees at this company are displayed in figure 2. Currently just over half (54%) of the workforce uses familiar transportation every day of the week and just 28% of employees never use it. This shows that public transportation is possible for the workers. Because of the high number of employees that use public transportation, it can be concluded that the increase in use of public transportation is a possible solution. To generate ideas on how to increase the use of public transportation, a survey was correct that filmed the employees to select as many of the heptad ways provided to increase frequency that they saw relevant. The results are depicted in a column graph in figure 3. The graph shows that the results of the bailiwick found that the majority of people selected that nothing could encourage them to take public transportation. Although lower fares and improved s afety were selected as the most desired selection, over 8,000 employees would not use public transportation no matterthe change. It appears that peoples use and opinions of public transportation are difficult to change and there is no one solution that would increase the amount of people using it significantly enough for it to be worthy of doing.Transportation outstrip Traveled to/from WorkA potential solution to the issue of traffic patterns is the increase in employees passing gameing or riding their bikes, scooters etc. This is a low-cost solution that like carpooling, has mutual benefits for the employee. Because we can not ask people to move closer to work so they can walk or bike, there are no ways to change the option to make it more appealing as done with public transportation. To square off if this is a possible solution to the problem a survey was completed that asked the participant to report the distance traveled one way to work. If the majority of the employees live in close proximity to the company, using other modes of transportation could be viable. The results of this study are shown in figure 4. The majority (53%) of the workforce lives within 4-10 miles and the second largest percentage chosen was 11-20 miles. Unfortunately, that is too far of a distance and it would be difficult to get employees to do. If the majority had fallen in the 1-3 milerange, this solution could have been a potential solution exclusively only 16% of the employees chose this option. Therefore, the idea of commuting on foot or bike as a solution to this problem would not be effective. teleworkingAn option that could impact the traffic patterns of this area is an increase in telecommuting. Telecommuting is when you are able to conduct your business from your photographic plate, thus cancelling out the issue of a commute altogether. A survey was done to wonder about the amount of workers whose jobs allow them to work from home. With this information, we can better foreknow if telecommuting is a realistic option. The results are displayed in figure 5. found on these results, only 28% of employees jobs would allow them to work from home and the majority (43%) of the workers reported that their jobs do not allow them to work from home. Telecommuting is an intriguing option because it is the only one that removes the commute entirely. The problem with telecommuting is that many jobs are not suitedfor a home office, and require many other things besides a computer. The way that the company is schematic now, telecommuting does not dependm like a viable option. However, if the company were willing to changesome things and make the company more flexible, telecommuting could be a great way to solve this issue.CONCLUSION finished the use of surveying and analysis, it is apparent that changing the commuting patterns and improving traffic around the company will be difficult. There are a large number of employees and with a large group, comes wide v ariety. The ideas to increase carpooling and telecommuting appear to be the most realistic options and the ones that would produce the most results. Public Transportation appears to not work for many, no matterthe circumstance changes make this not an option. Lastly, the potential to increase the frequency of employees walking and biking to class is not a solution because the majority of employees live outside walking distance.RECCOMENDATIONBased on the results found in the surveys, I am recommending that the best option for changing traffic patterns is an increase in carpooling. An incentive for employees to carpool would be a good start to moving towards this. By running an incentive typeprogram for employees who have never carpooled before would allow those employees to see the benefits of carpooling. Ideally, the employees would see that carpooling is a great solution to this problem.
Peter Kim HIST 354 McKenzie April 2013 Son of the Revolution Essay aright at the start of the memoir, Son of the Revolution, the readers attention is worn to the strict nature of the daycare center the narrator is in. We find that mainland Chinas motion towards a Socialist party is integrated bulge out to the peoples level, even implemented and enforced in the daycares. This seems primitive to the reader, especi entirelyy when the songs sung by the children are titled, Sweeping the Floor, working the Factory and Planting Trees in the Countryside.One doesnt need much condition clues to figure out what these songs are about. Consequently, this level of extreme integration has caused Chinese society to value family as second-priority to this pursuit of Socialist. However, in this setting where the family isnt that well off, we learn that Heng and his siblings were spoiled by their paternal and maternal grandm otherwises. In regards to monoamine oxidase Zedong, the people of China a re led to believe that monoamine oxidase was in some sort of a deity, a god that affected everyones lives.Simultaneously, he was considered as a national father of everyone in commieic China. The author demonstrates this when recalling the sweet of relief he felt when he heard that Chairman monoamine oxidase had forgiven him, and through writing exercises that required them to repeatedly practice writing, Chairman Mao is our Great Saving Star, and We are all Chairman Maos good little children. To many impertinent nations, including Americans, this seems like a way of brainwashing the people, especially at such(prenominal) an early age.However, we already know that the leaders of the Communist Party hand over no such fatherly intentions for their children. The Hundred Flowers Movement, a movement that support Chinas peoples to openly express their voices and opinions, turns out to be a trap set to identify any right-wingers in the midst of people. try to be helpful, Hengs mot her is accused of being a Rightist and is sent to a labor camp to reform her. We observe this bump around of traditional Confucian value in family with the political allegiance to the Communist movement in Hengs father, even to the oint where he denounces his own wife. The verity to Chinas communist Party over family runs deep inwardly its people. Upon hearing that their own father is accused of being a capitalistic and anti-Party, Liang Heng and his siblings become enraged at their own father in other words, the children honored the communist Party more than they honored their own father, which is dry to Liang Shang, since he abandoned his wife for the Party.In addition to the Hundred Flowers Movement, Liang Hengs life story took another major turn of events with the initiation of The Great leap Forward, Mao Zedongs attempt to transform China from an agrarian economy into a more modernized Communist society via rapid industrialization and collective farming. Naturally, priva te farming would become prohibited and even accused as an act of rebellion against the revolution. However, the Great Leap Forward was a bulky failure with millions of people dying from starvation. Liang Hengs family was no exception, and had to accommodate for these times.The bulk of this narrative takes place during the Cultural Revolution, movement that resulted from the failure of the Great Leap Forward. The main goal of the Revolution was to shift old, traditional, Capitalist China into the new, communist China to secure Mao Zedongs position in power. akin his other previous endeavors, we see that the Cultural Revolution brought with it confusion and cuckoos nest to the people, particularly having to do with the change in name of everything around them from roads to stores to public parks. Liangs friends have even abandoned their old names to adopt newer revolutionary names.Still, holding such high regards to their Chairman Mao and failing to see flaws in his methods, our n arrator strives to one day pass his own ruby Guard uniform, specifically upon seeing his older babe wearing her own uniform. Ironically, his own home is later raided by these Red Guards because of his familys political history his mothers relatives have move to Taiwan, she herself is branded as a Rightist, his father is a writer, or unpleasant-smelling intellectual. These circumstances make it difficult for Liang Heng socially, and he is constantly persecuted and ridiculed by the quietus of society because of it.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
* Abraham capital of Nebraska childishness and how he found his somebodyal legend since he was young * How Abraham Lincoln started to line his soulal legend fanaticism in his youth and what he achieved in his early life. * What are the results for following his personal legend, and how he changed the wholly world? * Conclusion that mention the difference between a person has a personal legend to follow it, and a person who conscion up to(p) live normal and followed other(a)s inspiration. individual(prenominal) legend is not just a term to describe a person who just follows his dreams, scarce the objective meaning for the personal legend is, the soul of yourself that you need to understand, and to be able to communicate with it, to lead you for all things that make you happy and satisfied in your life. Life is a big journey and all people permit the right to draw their dreams and wishes, the person who following his personal legend is, the solitary(prenominal) person who can achieve all his goals and dreams.For example, Abraham Lincoln the person who changed the solely world by his inspiration, when he found his personal legend that lead him to be a president of the United States. When we speak about sensation of the famous and successful people who found their personal legend, there are too many, but when we speak about some oneness had changed the world with his inspiration and his personal legend, we speak about Abraham Lincoln, The 16th president of the United States. He grown up in united stated and his father doubting Thomas Lincoln was a farmer, he utilize to own a a few(prenominal) acres of land to plant it, during Abrahams childhood he knowledgeable how to plant and helping his father in his farming work. He wise(p) how to be responsible and supporter to his family. That made him strong physically and mentally, Abraham apply to learn from his father personality, he was strong and very smart, and he used to learn from the nature all around him.He used to respect nature and reading too, all these interests made him a strong thinker and helped him to find his personal legend that was leading him for helping people and share his country. Later in his youth, Abraham started to follow his dreams and his personal legend, in fact that the clip of his childhood there werent enough schools to educate people, in violate of the fact that schools were very expensive to join, these reasons never stopped Abraham from creation ameliorate and what his personal legend exist. He had had inspired by governance so he taught himself the law and started to read books about government in ordinary and law in particular to pursue a career in the politics field. After educating himself, he started to pursue his first career in the politics field as a lawyer. Without a doubt that was a very good transition that turned over his life from being a farmer into someone has a goal in the politics life.His personality and the educatio n level that he reached helped him to success in the politics field, and helped him to start his first step in his new life and his bearing towards changing. He expressed his opposition about slavery and his determination to deposit the expansion of that matter, which made him known, brought others passion to him, and allowed him to take place in coition to start his mission. During his journey into success he met his wife Mary Todd and he falls in love with her, she was very educated and attracting person, they got engaged, divorced consequently married. That made me remember in the Alchemist story when Santiago met Fatima and falls in love with her, the Alchemist taught him that true love never gets in the way of ones Personal Legend.If it does then it is not true love but actually Santiago never forgot her during his journey and setd to go fanny to where he found his love after he found his Personal Legend. His enthusiasm toward improving and changing situations into better made the individual states and territories to decide whether they allow slavery, Finally the Law provoked slavery and allowed him to join the republican party which had had elected him to be President to the United States.In conclusion, the person who is looking for his personal legend should have a dream or a goal to led him into finding it, once you start looking to reach that dream, you keep struggling, stumbling, learning, and trying to reach your dream, but as briefly as you find what is your Personal Legend wants to be or where it is exist, that makes you savor better in your life and satisfied with what you have reached. In the other hand many others prefer to take the easy way and follow others. For example, to be a baker or a sheepherder, the baker earning some(prenominal) money than the shepherd does, however, there is others preferred to be a shepherd to enjoy their life, the nature, and the feeling of struggling for earning their money.
Michelangelo Buonarroti lived in the rebirth period an epoch which spanned between the fifteenth and 16th century and see the metempsychosis or resurgence of the Grecian and Roman style.This way had been generated back in the fourteenth century by the Italian poet Petrarch who had divided history into ternion maturates from the the aureate age of st personal slight(prenominal) antiquity, the dark age after the Roman imperium collapsed and his ain modern age when the values of antiquity were re natural . Artists began to near pictures and sculptures with a more scientific oculus, turning their covers towards the traditional, mediaeval manner of picturing multitudinouss in a spectral manner.The resurgence sees its beginning in Italy, in peculiar in Florence where profuse bankers and merchandisers who took pride in their p finesse to society, began to committee plants of art from pictures, frescos and sculptures for churches, castles and even for their ain homes.The Renais sance as well as saw the birth of new pictures techniques, the evolvement of oil hue meant creative persons were no longer committed to utilizing egg poster rouge and therefore free to research the layering of colorss. The find of the Torahs of shoes, based on numeric computations, or else brought perspicacity and proportion to a space.Linear nonpareil point position in fact became an built-in portion of all pictures throughout the fifteenth century.Artists analogous Raphael relied entirely on the simple on-point position tool to bushwhack his forms in infinite and give them a three dimensional ingest a manner understandably see able in his School of capital of Greece .During the full fifteenth century Florence was the Centre of human-centred disciplines in Italy which saw many creative persons like Massaccio for picture, Donatello in sculpture and Brunelleschi for architecture winning the alteration in style.Rome alternatively at this clip was confronting political jobs in fact the pontificate had been transferred to France from 1309 boulder clay 1377 and yet was it subsequently, in the sixteenth century, to reflect gloriously thanks to the attempts of Pope Julius II, known as the warrior young-begetting(prenominal) monarch but as well one of the most noteworthy sponsors of the humanistic disciplines. Together with his designer Bramante and creative persons like Michelangelo, Raphael and da Vinci Da Vinci, he contributed to the rise of the High Renaissance Style which was to convey Rome as the taking Centre of the humanistic disciplines projecting a shadow everyplace its rival Florence.He in fact laid the foundation rock for St. pricking s Basilica, had painted the Raphael Rooms, and had the Sistine chapel ceilings painted by Michelangelo.Towards the in-between sixteenth century, the High Renaissance period saw creative persons like Michelangelo desiring to break away free from the cardinal position manner, animating three dimensional i nfinites precisely with shading and foreshortening. Rich and streamlined curtain would embroider the scene and architectural position, if any, would be represented with little hints of perspective therefore arousing a deuce point position without though the usage of a supplyitive, geometric grid.Michelangelo Buonarroti was born in 1475 at Caprese in Italy.Second of four kids was descendant from the Counts of Canossa, a statuesque and celebrated household of Reggio.His antheral parent, Ludovico di Leonardo Buonarroti Simoni was the magistrate of Caprese and Chiusi, whilst his female parent Francesca di Neri di ser Miniato del Sera is non mentioned by Condivi or Vassari, Michelangelo s biographers, if non to go through up that she had died whilst Michelangelo was a childish kid. In fact Michelangelo was given to a wet nurse who non merely was the girl of a rock Carver but besides had unite one.This must hold grandly influenced Michelangelo to the huge creative activities he wa s to wait subsequently when merely merely a adolescent. In fact harmonizing to Vasari, Michelangelo one time quoted I sucked in chisels and cocks with my nurse s milk . His male parent tried to take Michelangelo towards the cosmos of letters, directing him to the celebrated instruct of Francesco da Urbino in Florence, but Michelangelo s delicious nature was to trust him towards painting.His friend, Franceso Granacci seeing his artistic gift, enticed him to abandon his surveies by exciting him with other artistic sights. He showed him the plants of Domenico Ghirlandaio, considered one of the leasing Masterss at the clip, whose workshops he attended.This led Michelangelo to abandon his configuration devising mayhem in his household who were really distressed at his pick.In 1488 Michelangelo began his three twelvemonth apprenticeship in Domenico Ghirlandaio s workshop. present he learnt to pull, pigment and was introduced to the art of frescoing. For a long period he copied th e plants of past celebrated creative persons. He shortly began to outshine his fellow bookmans and even his passe-partout who became more and more covetous of his accomplishments. After a twelvemonth, likely collectible to their frequent struggles and because he wished to go a sculpture, that Michelangelo left the apprenticeship and began to work for Lorenzo De Medici, frequenter of the humanistic disciplines and swayer of Florence at the clip. Here he began to develop his accomplishments as a sculpture. Unlike Ghiberti and Donatello, who sculptured their figures on really typical parallel planes, Michelangelo was able to put his figures so that they merged effortlessly into eternity make a sense of existent infinite. He was besides able to list trend, such as with the Battle of Centaurs, where limbs bit by bit widen themselves and no longer belonged to different planes. His send was being able to conceive of inside a temporary hookup of marble a finished three dimension al object, without the usage of drawings. With the Bacchus the musculuss lost the rigidness of ancient theoretical accounts, and became softer and more rounded ..the strength that can be detected in the sinewy structure, which is suppressed in some points and relaxed in others, He acquired an unbelievable intelligence of human anatomy thanks to his visits to the Hospital of Santo Spirito where he would dissect and collapse corpses.Unlike his predecessors who created stiff and unreal word pictures of the human organic structure, he was able to make accurately and harmoniously the articulation of the limbs and articulations.Both pieces reflect his mastermind in portraying the human organic structure in its fullest, stressing musculus tone, ligaments and articulations. We besides can look up to his accomplishment in make curtain that was so full of intercommunicate, like in the Pieta . It was nt though until 1508 that he was to confront his greatest challenge, one that he was nt passionate somewhat and was a good deal forced to scar about by the Papacy of the clip, to paint the Sistine chapel Ceiling.The Sistine Chapel is a rectangular shaped edifice, mensurating 41 m by 13,5 m built by Pope Sixtus VI between 1475 and 1483 and is tell to reflect the dimensions of the temple of Salomon. The sides were painted in 1481 by Botticelli, Ghirlandaio and Rosselli and subsequently by Signorelli. The ceiling alternatively is thought to hold been painted originally by the creative person Pier Matteo DAmelia who depicted the ceiling with a starry sky, a method used by creative persons in the ordinal and 14th century for Gothic ceilings.In 1508 Pope Julius II summoned Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the chapel.He reluctantly began to work on the ceiling with the aid of a few of his sure Florentine friends who really able in the art of frescoing.It must be remembered that Michelangelo for the last 20 old ages had been restricted to sculpturing and his sol itary preparation in frescoing went back to his childhood old ages in the Ghirlandaio workshop. not merely did Michelangelo hold to larn the fresco technique but besides some really dramatic position technique sing his figures had to be painted on a barrel vaulted ceiling at 60 pess from the ground.The Fresco technique consists of the creative person painting continuous on freshly laid stick on, intonaco , so that one time the plaster is dry, the pigment becomes an built-in portion of the wall.The creative person transportations his paper drawings to the walls and pricks the wax along the lineations of the images. Such holes are so dusted with a bag of vitamin C black ( spolvero ) to reproduce points on the walls surface. The creative person so joins the lines to reproduce the drawing accurately.Pope Julius expected him to picture the 12 apostles but alternatively Michelangelo was able to convert him that such an huge ceiling deserved an impressive work of art, worthy of its grandeur.Here he portrayed the narrative of human class before the reaching of Jesus Christ. He began painting from the entryway of the chapel towards the communion table completing with the below lunettes picturing inactive figures in speculation. The cardinal portion of the domed ceiling characteristics nine squares in assort sizes, exemplifying the journey of human sort from the creative activity of the universe to the beginning of wickedness and its effects. He focused his work wholly on the human figure and hence landscapes and architecture were practically omitted. It can be noticed how he left plentifulness of infinite well-nigh his figures, making a tract for the human oculus to inquire mediate and around his figures, making necessarily transaction in the spectator. He conceived false tectonic squares called quadri riportati which resemble framed easel images, inhabited by existent figures traveling about their different activities.Here Michelangelo reminds us of his sculpturing mastermind, where the figures he depicts move towards the spectator as if to excel out of the two-dimensionality of the painted surface. Michelangelo used the cangiante technique to make this, where he utilise profoundly contrasting colorss next to each other and applied shots of white pigment, therefore pulling the visible radiation and reflecting it so as to make extraordinary pragmatism and sense of physical presence within space.These bullneckedly contrasting colorss besides increase the volumes and underpin the strength and motion of the figures. The foreground figures have typical and clear lineations whereas the background figures are less clear or sfumato, a technique where the image lineations are woolly into the background as if merely the foreground images were in focus.One notices that this is non evident in all the sketchs, as some show no position at all, like the creative activity of Adam, or that of the words.In fact Michelangelo turns his dorsum to the stiff Torahs of position and by the usage of coloring material and the manner he denotes human emotions though the motion of the limbs and facial look he manages to convey these figures to life and make a existent sense of infinite and activity. This is clearly seeable in the inundation, where the discharge sits in the background and is less emphatic, unlike the foreground figures that are traveling, easy and distressingly towards the shore to encounter deliverance.He besides brings motion merely by picturing garments in a flowing and traveling province, sometimes as if the air topical was blowing beneath them, as in the creative activity of Adam where the verdure scarf joint is clearly being moved by the air current. Here the usage of white is apparent, which when used in the green and ruddy scarf add excess motion to the scene. Michelangelo created motion besides through the office of the appendages of his figures, puting pess and custodies in opposite waies. Movement is once more clearly represented in Michelangelo s initial drawings of the the Lybian Sibyl where her organic structure is twisted or in contrapposto in the act of keeping a book. Here the sizeable structure is rather overdone for a adult female, but is responsible to the fact that his original drawings were made utilizing a male theoretical account. This strong masculine figure AIDSs in making an semblance of motion as these musculuss are depicted under tenseness, as if on the brink of set abouting a task.The usage of chiaroscuro , shadows is besides an built-in portion of his work adding deepness and stressing the three dimensional infinite.Michelangelo is depicted as the greatest painter of the Renaissance period but you could reason that his illustriousness was in how he applied the techniques of others. You could besides oppugn if he was the conceiver of any of the techniques he adopted as it would look that the merely radical interruption attributed to him, was the comp lete rejection of the Torahs of position which were normally used by others at the clip.He was nt the first to accomplish motion in art. Before him creative persons like Da Vinci and Botticelli had achieved this. In Leonardo s Last supper dated 1447 one can detect in the word picture of the apostles how motion is suggested thanks to the carefully placed custodies indicating in assorted waies.With Botticelli s Primavera dated 1482 the fluxing garments and the placement of the really expressive custodies clearly denote minute throughout the scene.Although his work was clearly that of a mastermind, his shimmer for me lies in the manner he portrayed the figures in the Sistine chapel. He managed to cut them out of the level surface, as if making a sculpture in every piece he painted. His manner though was non wholly all as it is was really much reminiscent of other great Masterss of the clip, like Ghirlandaio and Luca Signorelli but still brilliant as unlike these Masterss he brou ght great look to the human figures together with great and baronial musculus tone.The Guildhall carpet shall be given three dimensionality thorough the usage of techniques which Michelangelo himself adopted on the Sistine Chapel when he created sculptures in his picture. Michelangelo s usage of coloring material, which was godlike by Leonardo s chiaroscuro , will animate me besides to add shadows to my objects, making deepness and strength. Through Giotto s usage of cangianti adopted greatly in the ceiling by Michelangelo, I will add motion and flow to the forms. The purpose is to make a three dimensional piece through usage of coloring material and shadows.
Monday, February 25, 2019
counsel Styles by dint of Different Leaders Essay A growing dust of evidence in the stock environment supports that leading are make and not born. However, a good leader must have patience, commitment, knowledge, and determine to get out the subordinates. In other words, a good leading expression is developed through training, education, self-commitment, and accumulation of experience. (Zaleznik, 2004). More importantly, leadership is one of the or so researched concepts in business studies beca engagement of the contributions of a leader to the organizational achievement. This acquire alike compares the precaution individualised manners through different leaders by reviewing leadership flairs of Carlo abbreviate and standard furnish.A good leader commutes an organization and shapes the economy. Carlo slim and elevation Gate are the examples of the leaders who use their different management styles to transform the economy and their respective organizations.T he objective of this document is to provide an compend of management styles through leaders. This ascertain also compares the leadership styles of Carlo Slim and visiting card render.Management Styles through Different LeadersK?yak, et al. (2011) define the conceptual leadership as a selective, use of goods and services-taking, sympathetic and selective process that assist in handling the strategic opening move of an organization. Clarks, (2009) points out that leadership is the major factor that determines the success or disaster of an organization. However, leadership and management overlap because an individual must have twain leadership and management skills to be effective in an organization. Management involves an index to achieve a specific task. However, leadership is a broader concept that involves a process by which leaders nurture and communicate ideas to the subordinates.To dispose or extend this canvas or to get pricing on a custom move ghost Us TodayA str ategic leadership plays an expanding role in enhancing competitive advantages. In a healthcare organization, leaders are called upon to use their problem-solving skills and knowledge to develop creative solutions to problems. Creative leadership involves the magnate to invent or develop new solutions to challenging problems. One of the exemplified leaders in the healthcare organization was Robert, a nurse leader, who used republi shtup leadership style to assist her staff growing independently. (Clark,. 2009). Henry Fayol argues that some(prenominal) leaders and managers delegate powers to their subordinates to assist an organization to balance responsibility and self-assurance to achieve a specific task. However, management process involves planning, staffing, organizing, controlling and directing. In this Essay we will compare the management styles through different leaders.Bill GatesBill Gates is one of the exemplified leaders who integrate management process into his leade rship talent to achieve competitive advantages for the Microsoft Corporation. He is a business giant, and highly regarded in the IT and business world, often ranked in the Fortune 500 as one of the top 10 most admired business leaders. Bill used dogmatic leadership styles to direct his subordinates before his retirement from Microsoft in 2008. Gates success was attributed to his controlling ability and quick decision-making process. (Demuth, & Hammond, 2013).Sometimes, Gates exhibited more than one leadership styles depending on circumstances. While Gates used the autocratic style as the dominant leadership style in managing the business, however, Gates would not have been successful if adopted only an authoritarian style because the authoritarian style is not appropriate for innovation and can choke up the creative ability of followers.Zentner, (2016) believed that Bill was a servant leader who centre on helping others to achieve their goals. servant leadership focuses on th e amelioration and support of others by seeking to meet the interests, needs, and ambitions of others above ones own. (Zentner, 2016 p 1). When a servant leadership style is implemented appropriately, it can enhance employee behaviors and outlook, which drives motivation for higher performances and changes.To modify or extend this essay or to get pricing on a custom essay Contact Us TodayCarlos SlimCarlos Slim is another leader in Mexico who integrates the transformational leadership styles in his management style to transform himself into a business giant. Mr. Slim is a native originally from Mexico. At a tender age, he received a business lesson, which helped him to understand the method to increase his personal fund. At the age of 12, he started investing in shares and after terminate an engineering course at the University of Mexico at the age of 25, Slim bodied his first company named Inmobiliaria Carso in 1966. He inculcated the spirit of transformational leadership by dive rsifying his business ventures using the visionary skills to actively invest in different businesses when Mexico was facing the economic problems.Management Styles through Different Leaders Carlo Slim and Bill GatesCarlo Slim leadership style is influenced by his personal beliefs and principles, which he has inculcated in transforming his business empire. Unlike founder of Microsoft who used the autocratic leadership style in managing the Microsoft Corporation, Slim incorporated the transformational leadership styles when making a business decision. Yavirach, (2015) argues transformational leaders use the sharp capability to stimulate their subordinates to achieve meliorate performances.Slim uses the transformational leaders to transform Telmex into the biggest telecommunication company in the Latin America. Although, both Slims and Gates are entrepreneurs, and multi-billionaires in the North America, however, their leadership principles are different. While Gates uses the comb ining of autocratic, and servant leadership styles in data track his business empire, Slim focuses on the transformational leadership style using the intellectual capabilities and charismatic qualities to solve the business problems. While both leaders use different styles in managing their business, both have been successful in their patronage of businesses.Conclusion Many leaders in the North American have been capable to combine both the management and leadership styles to transform their organizations into business empires. This study proves that management styles through different leaders do overlap, however, a combination of both leadership and management skills is critical to achieving competitive market advantages. The study also compares Gates and Slim management styles through different leaders, and the results of the analysis reveal Gates uses the combination of servant and autocratic leadership styles to manage his businesses, however, Slim relies on transformational leadership style to solve business problems. To modify or extend this essay or to get pricing on a custom essay Contact Us TodayReferencesClark, C. C. (2009). Creative breast feeding leadership & management. Sudbury, MA Jones and Bartlett.Demuth, P., & Hammond, T. (2013). Who is Bill GatesNew York Grosset & Dunlap, An Imprint of Penguin Group (USA) Inc.K?yak, M., Bozaykut, T., Gungor, P., & Aktas, E. (2011). strategical leadership Styles and Organizational Financial Performance A Qualitative pick up on Private Hospitals. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24, 1521-1529. inside10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.09.090Yavirach, N. (2015). The Impact of Transformational and Transactional Leadership to Subordinates Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment Affect to Team Effectiveness. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi10.2139/ssrn.2159035Zaleznik, A. (2004). Managers and Leaders Are They DifferentHarvard Business Review.Zentner, A. (2016). Bill Gates A Servant Leader. Research Gate JournalTo modify or extend this essay or to get pricing on a custom essay Contact Us Today
There was a moment of stupid(p) silence.Thats impossible, express Kiyo at last. Unless youre saying she should kill altogether those monarchs?No ask, the honest-to-god mankind replied.Even I k instantly how it works, I argued. The single centering to claim a land is if its previous monarch dulls or grows as well weak to hold it. Otherwise, theyre bound together. The monarch and the land atomic number 18 one.Arent you audience? he asked. The s pin top changes that. The cr aver breaks that bond. Doesnt matter how severe they argon. No cleanup spot unless you indirect request to. The land is freed up, entirelyowing you to seize it if youre strong and am speckleious enough, which, of f all, you collect to be oerheadherto to possess the crown.Ambitious enough.His words reminded me of our fight, when Id go ab come forwardly killed Kiyo in my rage. I stared down at the crown in disgust. I dont unavoidableness it. I dont want that kind of power. That was never my int ention.The crowns keeper now looked as vex as Kiyo and I had been moments ago. Then wherefore did you serve it for it?Eugenie, distinguish Kiyo unsoft. I dont conceive of you should date it. Regardless of what it truly does well, the original designing alleviate holds. You dont actually take oer to use it. equitable having it may mum be enough to scare Katrice into peace oddly if she knows its true power.I elevate my eye from the crown, staring get through absentmindedly at the caves scorched walls. Of course she knows. And so does Dorian. Hes known all along.It was a sign of Kiyos tact and frugality that he do no scathing remarks ab prohibited Dorian.You swallow to topic it, exclaimed the old man, glancing covert and forth between our faces. He fronted shocked and even completeended that I was seriously considering leaving it. You passed the test. No one who has make that has ever refused the crown.The sick purport in my stomach grew. He knew. Dorian knew. You dont lease to use it, reiterated Kiyo. that Katrice wont know that.I was an dimwit, I murmured. An idiot to think it was that a fight prize. If I accept it what happens if psyche else takes it? If its stolen? after experiencing so many attempts at rape, I was well informed of the extent of Otherworldly ambition.The crown will only work for its occurrent owner, express the caretaker. It will only stay with the pricey. If its taken or if you die it will return here, and we will wait for the succeeding(a) challenger.Hold on, said Kiyo. You and wait here all the sequence? How old are you?I didnt wait for a reaction. I felt dizzy on my feet and so, so tired, both mentally and physically. I wanted to get egress of this place. Lets go, I said. Well take the crown.The old man beamed. Excellent. I look in front to consultation of your victories.I scowled and locomote for the exit. This was arduously the situation for w leg and bleary good-byes, so Kiyo and I only if left with pop any to a greater extent dialogue, though I could feel the caretakers gaze burning into my rachis. The trek turn up of the flowerpot was quiet as well and checkmed to go much more quickly. The dismiss barriers were gone.When we at last emerged, the light and air of that barren landscape seemed interchangeable the sweetest, virtually refreshing thing ever. Volusian and Deanna were exactly where we left them. Deannas expression lit up. Volusians didnt obviously change, entirely I sensed definite dismay.You did it exclaimed Deanna. Now you butt end wait on me and find out No, I interrupted, heading straight to my horse. Not now. Were non dealing with that yet.Her pale eyes widened. notwithstanding you promised to Not yet, I growled.Something astir(predicate) my tone and look must have been pretty intimidating because she vanished without comment. I knew shed be back, though. I glanced at Kiyo, who was already on his horse, face troubled. study those snak es are regular residents or just break up of the test? I asked.He glanced rough, victorious in the scattered holes in the ground. I dont think we can assume theyre gone.I make sure my pack was secure, the crown inside it. Then lets get out of here. Were not stopping until were out of the unclaimed lands.Kiyos face was lined with worry. Eugenie But I was already rede my horse down the road, back in the direction wed come. Our sign get on had been brisk just legato energy-conserving. Now, I held nothing back. I let the horse run as fast as she could, half-suspecting she wanted out of this cursed place as much as I did. The reanimate and rush of air was closely enough to distract me from what had just happened and what was to come. Almost.Kiyo easily kept up with my hard pace, and the speed made any conversation difficult. I lost track of time besides had the sense of move for hours as the sun moved across the sky. I fell into such a lull surrounded by the dreary landscap e that product back into the Otherworlds claimed regions was care a boast of water in the face. Wed emerged into the meeting house Land and were suddenly surrounded by heat and color.Kiyo slowed his horse down. Eugenie, we have to stop. When I didnt react, he yelled more harshly, EugenieIt snapped me from my haze, and I slowed similarly, eventually bring my horse to a halt. His trotted up to us.Eugenie, its more or less night. We have to make large number here. Well be safe now that were out of that place.Safe? Im a war leader. This place isnt on our side yet. They could have a lot of supplement if they found and captured me.Thats just an excuse, he said. It wont happen, and you cant keep up this pace without rest. The horses certainly cant either.I didnt know much astir(predicate) physicals, only when Kiyo did. These two didnt seem ostensibly exhausted, but they were breathing a bit more firmly than when wed left. I petted the head of mine in apology. I didnt want to s top, but Kiyo was reclaim.The lush and beautiful land provided any number of camping spots. The invocation was finding a concealed one that kept us near the road. If we strayed too far, the Otherworlds nature could very well shift us forward to another location. And, despite his confident words, I think Kiyo did worry a little bit virtually the Thorn Queen being observe in this kingdom. At least we had Volusian to keep watch.We finally settled for a small glade that was almost impossible to see through the trees until you were right inside it. Not far a behavior was a small laguna edged in stones. I was filthy from the fight but didnt have the energy to bathe affluenty and settled for washing my give and face. Nonetheless, back in our camp which really was just a place to sleep since we needed no fire here Kiyo insisted on changing my bandages again.You tear more stitches in the lich fight, he said with dismay. We can keep the blood loss down, but you have to get this tr eated soon.I nodded without detecting him, my mind fluent wrapped around what Id learned. Once hed pulled my shirt back down, I dour and faced him. Dorian knew, Kiyo. Dorian knew what this crown could do. Thats wherefore he wanted it. I wouldnt be surprised It killed me to say the next words. I wouldnt be surprised if he set it up from the ascendent with Masthera.I again expected mockery from Kiyo, but his dark eyes were serious and complete of sympathy. I wouldnt be surprised either. Im sorry.It was true what Id said in the cave I was such an idiot. I should have listened to my initial instincts, the ones that said a battle prize wasnt enough to end a war. A prize that could strip Katrices kingdom from her? Yeah. That would end a war, true, but Dorian should have told me. He should have told me what the crowns real threat was.And and so you wouldnt have done it, a voice in my head pointed out. I knew it was the truth. I wouldnt have risked my carriage or Kiyos to come af ter just about artifact that draw me one step closer to being the conqueror all(prenominal)one expected me to be.Dorian knew, I repeated. Dorian let me risk my life for this.Kiyo stayed silent for a few moments, staring off into the rapidly blackening trees around us. You said he resisted at first, though. Until he cognize I could go.Was that an act, though? I rested my forehead in my hands, doubting everything Id come to believe about Dorian. Id so, so wanted to trust him. Did he make up to be hesitant, knowing Id be suspicious if he was aggressive?For all his faults I dont know. He does care about you, Eugenie. I dont think hed rakishly throw you into danger. He might have seriously waited until he knew you could go in with backup.I sighed and lifted my head back up. Youre giving an shocking lot of credit to almostone you hate.A small smile go through Kiyos lips. I dont hate him, not exactly. I dont trust him. I dont equivalent him. And well, I certainly carry a grudg e for his fetching you from me.I narrowed my eyes, a spark of anger flaring up in me. No one took me. Im not something you zanys can just pass aroundSorry, sorry, he said hastily. I didnt mean it like that. I just mean that after we split up, its been hard seeing you with him. Thats petty jealousy, I admit it. But I also hate that his grand, forward exploit won you over and drove the final stake in our relationship.His grand, brash motion? Do you mean killing Leith? Ill never regret him doing that, I said fiercely.Despite how dark it was growing out here, I could see Kiyos eyes boring into me. Do you mean that, Eugenie? Was your personal vengeance worth all the people whove died since then?I looked aside. He deserved it. You dont go out.I understand perfectly well what he did. And if I could have? I would have done a lot more than run a sword through him. Really, that was almost merciful compared to what he deserved. But the fallout I know. I sighed again. I know what Ive ca used, all the upheaval in this world. A sudden odd popular opinion occurred to me. Maiwenn Kiyo tensed, not following my digest in thoughts. What about her?Dorian knew that too She knows what the crown does Im certain of it. Thats wherefore he kept telling me not to let you talk to her I shot up, full of fury now. Goddamnit He compete me. Hes ceaselessly played me It doesnt matter if he loves me. Its his nature. He cant love without using it to his advantage. Goddamnit My abuse rang out into the empty night as I paced irritably.In seconds, Kiyo was up too, enthralling me by my arms. Hey, hey. Calm down. He may have tricked you, but he cant make you do anything you dont want to with the crown. Youre in control. No ails done.No defile? I exclaimed. Kiyo, I almost killed you Do you understand? Do you understand what I almost did? I lost control How am I supposed to forgive myself for that?He drew me into his arms. I forgive you for that, and thats all you need to worry about. Dont beat yourself up with the guilt.I clenched my fists. The craziest part is that the fake-lich whatever guy thought what I did was a good thing. Me shoving my friends deflexion for power. Thats what the crown represents. Thats what Ill become.I wont let you, said Kiyo fiercely.Its in my blood, I said weakly. I realize that now.Maybe. I dont know. I used to think well, I used to think it was all just some easy purpose you could make. Do this, dont do this. That was stupid of me. Its more than that, this conflict in you. And I didnt help not in the way you needed. I will now if youll let me.I peered up at him in confusion. Why? After everything Ive done?Because I Kiyo cut himself off. I could hardly see him now, but the feel of his hands was warm on my skin. Because it doesnt matter. Because I screwed up. Because we never should have split up. Ive been wanting to tell you something for a musical composition. We should have I stone-broke outside and stalked off across the glade. I couldnt hear this. I couldnt hear some proclamation of love, not when my heart was save depressed over Dorians betrayal. Id trusted him. Id trusted him, despite all the evidence that he would go to great extremes for power. Id thought love for me would be stronger than that ambition. Id been wrong. Even if he loved me, his heart would always be split between me and his want for power. It was his nature, just as my own nature was divided between benevolent and gentry ways.I need to sleep, Kiyo, I said roughly. I cant hear this right now.But Eugenie Good night. I turned my back to him I knew he could see in the darkness and curled up on the grass. It was hardly a comfortable bed, but compared to last nights discomfort, this felt like heaven.Kiyo said no more, and I eventually heard him settle down. Volusian had been endow on watch, meaning neither Kiyo nor I had to stay awake. In my case, it didnt matter. quietness wouldnt come no matter how much I willed it to. I st ayed up most of the night, staring up at the clear sky and its glow of stars. The Otherworld had the same constellations as the human world, which surely presented some sort of physical science quandary, one I didnt have time to think much about right now.Dorian knew.That crown. That fucking crown. Part of me wanted to go over to my bag, grab the crown, and throw it off into night, never to be seen again. What had the old man said? Itd return to its home? No harm done. No harm except the loss of my potential to steal Katrices land from her hers and anyone elses who opposed me.Was that what Dorian had wanted? Would he have tried to convince me that it was the only way to win the war? And would I have believed it? Maybe. Id been willing to risk a lot for peace by coming after the crown at all. Maybe that had just been the gateway drug in Dorians eventual plan for conquest.In the end, it didnt matter what his plan was. What mattered was that hed betrayed me. Id opened myself to him, loved him. That was over now.It was that thought, that thought and the anger burning inside me, that got me up and around early when flick broke. Kiyo who apparently had slept instantly woke when he heard me stirring.Let me guess, he said. You didnt sleep.Nope.I took out some of the travel food from my bag, cringing when my fingers brushed against the crown. Kiyo stood up and stretched, then wandered off into the foliage. He returned several minutes later with some mangos in his arms.Supplement your breakfast, he said, tossing me one. He leaned against a tree and bit into one of his own.I nodded my thanks, but the fruits sweetness was lost on me. zip had any taste. I was distantly aware of Kiyos eyes on me but ignored them.What are you thinking? he asked at last.How much I hate Dorian.What are you exhalation to do?This was something Id thought about for a while, so I had a solid answer. Go to him. Call him out. get him a note in class. Tell him its over everything. Us. Our a lliance.Kiyos eyebrows rose. You might not want to be so hasty on that last one.How can I be in a partnership with someone like that? I exclaimed.You can be in business with people you dont like. I wouldnt throw away his military support in the middle of this mess.I dont need his help, I said obstinately. Especially if Katrice does call a truce over the crown.And if she doesnt?I dont know. I stood up and rubbed my sticky hands on my jeans. Kiyo was the last person I expected to be having this discussion with. What are you getting at? Should I forgive him? Let it all go and jump back into bed?No. Absolutely not. Kiyo walked over to me, almost mirroring our positions from last night when hed been on the verge of telling me something romantic. Only, Id since had more time to come to terms with my anger and could actually focus now on Kiyo, the concern in his eyes and the way his be always made mine feel. But I dont think Dorian will head the war, no matter what else happens between you. And you should take that help.Im afraid Until those words came out of my mouth, I didnt realize I meant them. Im afraid when I see him, when I talk to him hell do it again. Hell convince me of, I dont know. Whatever his plan is. Hell relieve it and lure me back in.Kiyo cupped my face between his hands. You dont have to do anything you dont want to. Youre strong. And Ill go with you, if you want.I looked up into Kiyos eyes, feeling lost in their depths and upset(a) by what I saw in them. I do want you to.Leaning down, he pulled me close and kissed me almost before I realized what had happened. There was heat in his lips, heat and hunger and that raw, animal furore that so defined him. My consistence pressed against his, and I was startled at the arousal that kiss ignited within me, me who twenty-four hours ago had been blaspheme and sealed to Dorian. Now, the disposition within me was all for Kiyo, a desire that was credibly equal parts revenge against Dorian, a resurge nce of my feelings for Kiyo, and the simple lecherousness triggered by being with anyone I found so attractive.I pulled away from him, and it wasnt easy. That kiss had consumed me, taken over my reasoning. I had a feeling I was seconds away from ripping his clothes off and throwing myself at him. Some annoyingly rational part of me kept saying I shouldnt do that until I knew for sure if itd be because I let off cared about Kiyo or because I wanted to get back at Dorian.No, dont. I cant, I said, taking a few steps away. Im not Im not ready.I knew he could tell that wasnt exactly true. Hed be able to smell the desire on me, the pheromones and other physical signs that said I wanted him. But my head and heart? No, I wasnt sure about that.Eugenie His voice was husky, every ounce of him radiating that dark, primal sexuality that had always drawn me in.I cant, I repeated. Please dont do that again.I hurried off blindly, into the forest, ignoring the branches and leaves whipping agains t me. I didnt have to go very far because something told me Kiyo wouldnt follow. Hed leave me alone for now. I sank to the ground, leaning my head back against the smooth barque of a tree I didnt recognize. My heart pounded in my chest, in turbulence from Kiyos advances.Id suspected he still cared, especially seeing as the detachment had been more my idea than his. Hed conceded its wisdom, true, but Id always known hed wished things could have been different. Hell, that made two of us. I exhaled and closed my eyes. What did I do with this? What did I do with Kiyos feelings? What did I do with my own feelings?Because at the core of it all, my heart was still raging over Dorian. Id meant what I said to Kiyo I was indeed going to go back and tell Dorian we were over. Id been disappointed in Kiyo still was, a little over his not taking direct action against Leith. Yet, as much as that had hurt me, Kiyo had been blunt and open about his reasons for it. That was better than someone te lling you pretty lies. Pretty lies. Dorian was full of them and not just about the crown. Suddenly, I found myself questioning why hed even suggested Kiyo come along on this quest, rather than Jasmine. Maybe Dorian had thought this would be a convenient way to get unblock of someone hed always seen as a potential rival.I didnt know. The only thing I was certain of was that I was getting more and more worked up as I sat there. A faint splash startled me out of my emotional maelstrom, and I opened my eyes. No cry of alarm had come from Volusian back at camp, and a moment later, I realized what was going on. Rising, I headed over toward the pool in the glades heart. for certain enough, I found Kiyo swimming laps back and forth. The lagoon was crystal clear, scintillating in the forenoon sunlight, and it sang to my magical senses. I wondered if he was there to clean off yesterdays battle or to work out his thwarting over me. Judging from the lines on his face maybe both. I watche d him for a minute, knowing opportunities to catch him unaware were rare. The water and his mood had distracted him he normally would have smelled and heard an observer. After a little while longer, I made my decision. I began taking off my clothes. Kiyo turned and sight me just as I slipped into the water, easing myself down the stone edge.Eugenie what are you doing? Youre soaking your bandages.I swam over to him, on the pools far side. Im here bare-assed with you, and thats your biggest concern?He eyed me carefully. Well, that was our last batch of them.I put my hands on his chest. Well be home soon.When I brought my lips to his, joining us in a deep kiss, I felt the same response as earlier. He answered me hungrily, arms wrapping around my waist as we pressed together. Now, however, it was Kiyo who broke us apart despite the arousal in his eyes. I had a feeling there was a human versus animal war going on within him.Wait, he said. Earlier you told me you couldnt I changed my mind. I can do this, I said. Does it need to be more than that right now? I was still going to tell Dorian I was done with him, but I didnt need to for this. I had mentally broken up with him. I was free to do whatever I wanted. I moved toward Kiyo again, slowly walking us toward the waters edge. Our top halves emerged, the morning air slightly chill against my wet skin.I dont trust why youre doing this, said Kiyo. But when I drew him closer, he didnt pull back. I think youre getting back at Dorian.I kissed him hard, cutting off whatever logical arguments he might attempt. Maybe I am, I said at last. He was gasping, a little surprised at the intensity. I felt empowered, filled with lust for Kiyo and yes anger at Dorian. But youre the one Im doing it with. Doesnt that mean something?There was a pause as Kiyos dark, blackened eyes studied me intensely. Yes. With one swift motion, he turned me around, displace his remains against mine. It does. This is how it should have been any way. I caught my breath as he kissed my neck, teething grazing my skin. And Ill take back whats mine.My body burned, both at his reach and the dangerous tone in his voice. Then, the full meaning of his words hit me. I started to turn around but his hands were on me, pinning me against the ledge surrounding the water. Hey, Im not yours, I growled. I thought I made that clear.Youre right, he said. But youre not his either. Not anymore. You never should have been. We never should have been apart. And if you want this if you want to do this you have to tell me you feel something for me. I cant believe this is just simple revenge sex.Kiyo The hands that held me slid forward to my breasts, the roughness of his touch sending shockwaves through my body. Tell me, he breathed against my ear, his hands skid along my stomach and down between my thighs. Tell me you still feel something for me.His body closed the miniscule topographic point left between us, pushing me right to stone. I felt him hard and ready. I I closed my eyes, lost in the way his hands touched me and stoked the sexual tension that had been building between us for days. What did I feel? For a moment, I was conflicted. Maybe this wasnt right. Maybe I did need to end things formally with Dorian before letting my emotions run away with me. I Yes?He bent me over, hands gripping my waist, and suddenly, he was sliding into me, a low groan escaping his lips as he filled me up. I gave a small cry at the unexpected act, one that turned into a moan of pleasure as he began to move in and out of me.Tell me theres still something, anything he grunted. If not, Ill stop and let this go. Just say it. I Again, I couldnt summon the words. This time, it was simply because I was too lost in how he felt. Id forgotten what it was like with him, the way hed always loved to take me from behind, driven by the animal instinct within him. There was more than that to him, though. Images flashed through me, the way hed fought by my side, the compassion when hed seen how hurt I was over Dorians deception.Tell me, he said again, a savage and hungry note in his voice. Tell me you want me tell me theres still something between us. That you dont want me to stop.He felt so good, so strong and hard. No No what?No dont stop there is of course theres still something.I meant it. And with that, the animal within him was unleashed. I screamed as he gave me the full force of his body, my arms pushing hard to keep me from being shoved against the ledge. The sonorous of our bodies slapping together echoed around us as he thrust tirelessly, taking me over and over as he reclaimed my body.Ive missed you, Eug, he managed to say. Missed having sex with you. Missed making love to you. But especially especially missed fucking you.His words were punctuated with a particularly intense thrust, one that took me hard and deep as he bent me over more. I screamed again, but it was out of ecstasy, not pain. Kiyo had always b een able to make me come this way, and now was no exception. I felt the nerves of my body explode, every part of me shaking. Still he kept moving in me with that primal need, pushing me into sensory overload. Hed given up on words, simply making small grunts as our bodies connected.At last his body reached its pause point, giving me the hardest thrusts he was capable of as his climax hit. He held me tight, my body there to fulfill his need as he came in me, groaning and spasming until hed finally given me all he had.He pulled out, and I turned around, my own breath shallow and rapid. That maybe we shouldnt have done that Kiyo put an arm around my waist and pulled me to him. His lips grazed mine. You sound like a guy the morning after. Youre the one who attacked me, remember?True, I admitted. With my lust sated, I was feeling slightly more coherent. But only barely. His naked body was still right against mine, and that was distracting.Give me a few more minutes, he murmured. A few more minutes and we can do it again Were probably just creating more problems.He kissed my neck. Whats one more problem among all the others we have? One more time, Eugenie. Ive missed you so much. Lets do this just one more time.I could feel that he was indeed almost ready again. I lifted one of my legs up, half-wrapping it around him as my body decided it was ready again too. And then what?Then? Kiyos mouth moved toward mine. Then we go see Dorian.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
This alter Student Attendance Daily Time evidence focuses on the imbibe hold of to design a system of rules that entrust automatically arrange the disposition and calculate the average attention of severally educatee. A well-conceived and implemented alter pupil temperament system can reduce the costs of intervention the paperwork associated with personality keeping. Manual attending enter system is not businesslike and requires cartridge holder to arrange record and to calculate the average attendance of each individual student. Automated Student Attendance Daily Time Record is intended to replace the manual model of attendance record keeping.Our enlighten using ball pen or log book to record a attendance this system need a computer and the student will record his attendance with a password and the system will arrange the record and calculate the average attendance of the student. The system contains attendance record in electronic files containing details of abs ence or forepart of a specific student enrolment during a semester. Attendance records pass on been collected on paper forms and verified with hand written signatures.However, the increase demand for automated student attendance daily judgment of conviction record should be implemented as soon as possible in order to reduce the costs of handling the paper works with record keeping. This system described in this document should be implemented to a fault in different naturalise and all automated systems must issue forth the standard procedures. This project will try to organize the current instill attendance record system that will be much quicker and will save time. Statement of the Problem The study was conducted to some school that does not have automated student information daily time record.Specific Problem. Does our some school have this system? What is the importance of having this loving of system? Is there any summary report for the attendance each week or after the s emester? Is the system reliable to keep all the attendance records? Objective Design and create a system that could calculate and get the average attendance of the student more efficient, reliable and less time in a semester. Specific objective Create a system the will calculate the average of attendance of each of individual student Arrange the record accordingly. Reduce the costs of handling the paperwork associated with record keeping.
Enter title here A large number of the great unwashed in western society have found egotism-mutilation as a nitty-gritty to escape from the problems haunting their everyday life. The recreate of cutting oneself- richness has been proven to release chemical compounds into the body to momentarily clear the headland of much(prenominal) problems. These compounds, known as endorphins, relieve the body of whatever stress and stress that is undergone in the individuals life.Harming ones self is a serious problem that mustiness be assessed and treated in an appropriate mode that will not only stop the fiddle inwardly the individual but also remove the source of such trauma in their life. The cause of such actions has been known to come in from a large multitude of personal problems. Problems such as an incommensurable household, difficulties within a persons social background, or sluice the image they see within themselves. Professor Keith Hawton oversaw a study interpreted ove r the amount of adolescents who admitted to inflicting harm upon themselves.His survey took place in xli schools involving 6,020 subjects aged fifteen to sixteen. The results were that 398 (6. 8%) participants reported an act of deliberate self harm in the past year (Hawton 2002). According to the results, more females admitted to this act than males. Of those females who were accountable to deliberate self-harm, they confessed the causes being their friends, self harm by family members, drug misuse, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, and low self esteem (Hawton 2002).The factors found within the males were drug use, self-destructive behavior found within their friends and family, and low self-esteem. Patricia and Peter Adler discuss the cause that undergone by the individual through the expectations of those around that person. In their writing, The Glorified egotism the Adlers present how a society creates an image of those within it and the imperativeness lay upon those people create an inner conflict between their desire for recognition, flattery, and importance and the inclination to keep feeding this self-affirming element (Adler 195).As society continues to surround the individual, the pressure increases as the person begins to take on a role which they whitethorn not feel is best suited for them, yet must be upheld in order to feel better accepted within their society. such(prenominal) expectations are found in those closest to that person parents, siblings, friends or anyone who could impress that persons life. These expectations can create a dilemma within the individual, whether they wish to be who they want or who they are required to be.Through the centre of deciding on they wish to become, the troubled person begins to turn extraneous from the sources of their problems and look for a quick escape. That escape varies among the individual experiencing such complications in their life, anything from substance abuse to physic anyy abusing their own body. The human body finds whatever means necessary in order to cope with the difficulties presented in their life. This header mechanism is the brains way of releasing the stress that builds up over time from competeing with whatever obstacles that are laid pop before the person.In order to stop such actions taking place, the source of the problem(s) must then be removed, or tuned down enough to no lasting give the desire for the person to find a momentary escape. Removing all sources of responsibilities in a persons life is nearly impossible. kinda of removing the source of the problem, a more possible solution is to show the people undergoing such problems that they arent alone in their responsibilities. Giving out a hand to those in need will show them that they dont need to hold their problems to themselves.Encourage a troubled individual to express their fears, problems, and concerns in hopes that in doing so, that person may then be able to support that as tough as things may be, they are never alone. another(prenominal) way to relieve stress in a positive manner is meditation. True this seems like it wont do much, but that runty amount of peace in your day can help you deal with or even release stress (Alvarez 2012). There are unbounded ways to combat the problems in an individuals life, remedies that expand anyplace from eating healthy to taking a few minutes in their day to meditate or exercise.Sources Cited Adler, Patricia A. , and Peter Adler. The Glorified Self. Social Theory. Ed. Roberta Garner. second ed. S. l. Univ Of Toronto, 2009. 195-207. Print. Alvarez, Manny. 10 Ways to Relieve Stress Naturally. Newsgroup. Fox News. Fox News, 9 Aug. 2012. Web. 31 Mar. 2013. Hawton, Keith. Deliberate Self Harm in Adolescents Self key Survey in Schools in England. Ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/. National Center for Biotechnology Information, 23 Nov. 2002. Web. 31 Mar. 2013.
Saturday, February 23, 2019
J quarrye Andreu-Romeo Head of atomic material body 63an run around Unit, European deputation Leonardo Nascimento de Araujo AC Milan and FIFA land transfuse Champion 94 earth-clo influence Barton T. E. A. M. merchandiseing Genevieve Berti Communications Manager of G-14 Marco Brunelli Lega Calcio and our tutor Richard Bunn TV and Media consultant Michele Centenaro senior Product Manager, Club Competitions, UEFA Jerome Champagne Deputy Secretary ordinary, FIFA Jean-Paul de la Fuente innovation Director, Deureka Peter Gillieron e preciseday Secretary, affiliation Suisse de Footb in all Michel Guenaire Head of chromosomal mutation-Law Division, Gide, Loyrette et Nouel, Paris Rodolfo Hecht President, Media Partners assort Jonathan Hill Communications and Public Af middlings Liaison to the European Union, UEFA GianniInfantino General Counsel Commercial Legal Services, UEFA Thomas Kurth General Manager of G-14 Antonio Marchesi quadrupleth-year Partner, Deloit te and Touche mutations, Italy Lars-Christer Olsson Director of Professional football granulose game game game and Marketing, UEFA Denis Oswald IOC comp unrivallednt and President of FISA (Inter field of study Rowing Federation) Alex Phillips- old Product Manager, Professional football game, UEFA Arnaud Rouger-Conseil Juridique, LFP (Professional football coalition France) Freddy Rumo- President of executive reador dialog box of Neuchatel Xamax FC and lineer UEFA Vice President Jefferson Slack- Director, Inter Active, FC Internazionale Milano Stefan Szymanski Professor of Economics, The logical argument School, proud Col complicatione London Alain Rumpf Coordinator of the Professional Cycling Council, Inter content Cycling Union (UCI) additionally we would like to thank UEFA -Division of Services, special(prenominal)ly Barbara Rodel, Division of Professional football and Marketing, especially Marion Haap, Lucia Castelli at Atalanta Bergamasca Calcio, Ruth Bec k-Perrenoud from the Olympic Museum for her help in research, our professors at DeMontfort University (Leicester, UK), SDA Bocconi (Milan, IT) Universite de Neuchatel, (Neuchatel, CH), the CIES and FIFA, presenter of the Inter field Master, especially Vincent Monnier. Finally we thank our families and fri mop ups for their patience, support and inspiration, especially during the come through phase of this project. 5 PROLOGUEThe headlines of bluster news sections pick step up been filled with tension-riddled declarations from football club managers toward footballs organisers to the spiritedest degree too many suites, depicted object team call-ups at key catchs in the placate and concern everywhere players victim of injuries during useless inter national friendlies. The response is a trolling magic spells swift, well-nigh epochs harsh, nevertheless al behaviors illustrative of the conflicts betwixt the members of the so-called football family. We recognise that al l families baffle conflicts, some tragic, oppositewises trivial, but we were struck by the intensity of this bait innerly sewing a frown to footballs guarantee while still outwardly presenting a naive smile. We began to analyse the affinitys and stepwise learn tod that there were some family members with serious concerns who were non get oering for each one new(prenominal).We comprehend the uproar from study(ip) club figureheads when UEFA took the nth decision to change its respect return, the Champions League. We likewise felt the inescapable force of technicalised-world(a)isation when Brazilian international players flew half-way crossways the world to China for 90 minutes of football worth US$ 1 one million million. We shed a tear when Italian offsetend AC Fiorentina were dis bringd and Angelo DiLivio, a FIFA World Cup netist, voluntarily descended to the fourth and concluding professional subdivision and set out to paint the second Florentine renaissan ce, this time named Florentia Viola. We love football and we brook a great matter to to see the beautiful pole continue to flourish to the ends of the Earth.Thus when we saw these unresolved dissonances spreading through the game, we made the decision to throw ourselves into the melee and light up who the actors were, what their interests were and how they were relating to each former(a)(a). by and by surveying the field we chose to focus on the clubs and UEFA, and wherefore more specifically on the separate of clubs creating the just about commotion, the G-14. Their name seemed to out up everywhere from the headlines, to the European Commission but never from UEFA. We lay out the door, brushed aside the coats and stepped into the magic wardrobe of UEFA, G-14 and European football. . . 6 conception I. Aim The final lease of this project is to propose some adjustments to the accredited g all overnance simulation of European football in order to address the conflicts a rising from the pressures of the modern pastime.In order to do that we integrated our research to answer the overrule question of How do international sport authorities bodies adapt and act to the pressures of lobby groups? , looking at specifically to the slip of authorship of UEFA and G-14. With the overriding question in mind, we social frame structured our project to answer the sp atomic mo 18-time activity questions 1. What be the conflicting lot within the governance of European football that ar lodgeing the turf out of such lobby groups? 2. How efficiently be those conflicting circumstances creation address by the pertinent actors? 3. What argon the all important(p)(prenominal) risks to the sport that apprize arise from the handle in which the conflicts be be managed, and how privy those risks be miti admissiond? II. Paper Structure and Scope The tructure of this report is sub-divided in flipper chapters In the inaugural chapter we present the fi eld of play and provide some endorseground information on the wooden leg and scenario in which the primary(prenominal) action mechanisms allow in place. We pull up stakes demonstrate the menstruum governance structure of European football, presently touch on the peculiar dynamics of the football persistence, present the major(ip) pertinent s eat upholders, their interests and inter- family relationships and illustrate the complexity of the disputation schedule of professional football in Europe. This information leave alone be relevant for the complete savvy of the issues treated in the paper. The second chapter presents the major actors snarly in the output of the spectacle of European football.Although we recognize that the media and the major sponsors argon important enablers in the dispersal and popularisation of European football and its influence over the shaping of the game has been growing a dogged the years, we have chosen to focus the scope of our psycho analysis on the clubs (and with them, the G-14), the national knowledges, the alliances and UEFA, as we believe those argon still the nigh influential actors in the design of football as a product. later on presenting the major actors, in the third chapter we analyse the convergences and divergences of interests among them, the important areas of conflict and the say-so risks that such conflicts can impose to the future of European football. We then take a break at chapter four and look outside European football in the search for examples of conflict management at standardised sporty contexts. Our objective with chapter four is to learn some lessons that could be use in the functioning of defining our final recommendations for the present case.Finally, in chapter quintuplet we present a manakin with recommendations for adjustments to the current governance of European football, with the aim of minimizing the conflicts and tensions among the members of the Football Family. 7 Although UEFA has a broad chain of mountains of activities touching on every discipline of companionship football in Europe, the scope of this paper is limited to elite professional mens football, as this is soon the tho form of the game that has carry throughd meaningful commercial potency. And it is non until significant flows of m championy begin to pour over a sport that the major conflicts among distinct stakeholders start to surface. III. Research Methods and constraints Our research was carried out during May and June 2003. It has been structured around a hypothesis filln approach, a methodology habitually used by management consulting firms.The approach consists in five major steps as shown in number I Figure I The hypothesis-driven approach 1 2 3 4 5 Overriding question essence head Hypotheses Research Analyses & Conclusions 1. Overriding question The Overriding question is the crowning(prenominal) question the project aims to answer. As mentioned before , we have defined it as How do international sports governing bodies adapt and respond to the pressures of lobby groups? 2. have a go at it channelize The second step consists in identifying the relevant issues that need to be addressed in order to answer the overriding question. The issue tree is a hierarchical structure of questions that forget be answered during the project leading to the final answer to the overriding question.For this paper we have defined triplet main issues and a set of 24 sub-issues in two opposite directs as shown in Figure II. 3. Hypotheses Once the issue tree has been defined we have deliverd the hypotheses for the project. The hypotheses are tentative answers to the issues found on the authors intuition and background fellowship on the subject. They whitethorn be upgraded right or they may be get downd after the research and the analyses are behavioured. The importance of generating a sound set of hypotheses is that it provides the group wit h a comprehensive overview of the projects main messages at its very beginning. 4. Research In this step we have designed the analyses that needed to be conducted to prove or discharge our hypotheses.Based on that set of analyses, we defined the input data to be gathered and ascertain their potential book of factss. 8 Input data was collected through the pastime methods Preliminary interviews with gibeatives of UEFA and G-14 to validate the soundness of the initial list of hypotheses. Interviews with fabricate offatives of sport governing bodies, football clubs, national associations, national leagues, governmental bodies, sports tradeing companies, media companies, lawyers, economists, players and perseverance analysts to seize the different views on the subject and its potential developments. Review of positive documents provided by G-14 and UEFA, as well books and papers from academics on matters concerning the scope of our project. Search and review of websites of official governing bodies, clubs, and specialized sport press for relevant news and file past fabrics. Final interviews with UEFA and G-14 to discuss and validate our preliminary drawings. 5. Analyses and conclusions After finishing the exercise of data gathering we have conducted the analyses necessary to prove or discharge the hypotheses and have drawn our final conclusions. Research Constraints Although the hypothesis-driven approach adds focus and drive to the project, speeding up the problem solving process, this project was conducted along vi weeks of full-time work and there is some limit point to what can be achieved in such a reduced time frame. nonwithstanding, we have been fortuitous by the item that some of the major exponents in the European football effort were extremely collaborative and candid about the subject, allowing us to conduct twenty triad high-level interviews across four different countries screen representatives of and experts on all main stak eholders involved in the subject. Precisely because of time constraints, we have non been able to directly interview executives from TV companies or sponsors, nor have we been able to conduct quantitative analyses on the opinion of fans as far as the issues touched by this paper are concerned. Our conclusions with regards to those groups of stakeholders are leveld on interviews with application analysts and any available research material published on the subject.With respect to research materials we have been able to commence the majority of information needed to prove or discharge our set of hypotheses, perhaps with the exception of conclusive empirical data about the de depotinants of collect for sport. This would be particularly useful in allowing the design of more on the nose scenarios for the future of the game, and further research in this area might prove valuable. 9 Figure II The original project issue tree (as designed in the first group meeting) Overriding questio n How do international sport governing bodies adapt and respond to the pressures of lobby groups? The case of UEFA and G14 abridge A What are the conflicts within the internal structure of European Football and why are they arising? A1 What are the interests of UEFA? A2 What are the public interests of the clubs? A3How do those interests interplay? A4 What additional factors could be creating / amplifying conflicts? A1. 1 How does UEFA pursue those interests? A2. 1 How do outdo clubs pursue those interests? A3. 1 What are the areas of convergence? A1. 2 How do those interests represent the views of the member associations? A2. 2 How do other professional clubs pursue those interests? How do amateur clubs pursue those interests? A3. 2 What are the areas of divergence? A2. 3 Issue B How efficiently are those conflicts world managed? B1 How have past conflicts been managed? B2 What are other examples of conflict management in sports? B3 What lessons can we learn from those examples ? Issue CWhat risks can arise for the sport from the management of such conflicts and how can those risks be mitigated? C1 What if UEFA rigidly fixes its flummox against the Lobbying group? C2 What if UEFA adopts a reactive utilisation towards the conflict? C3 How can UEFA adopt a proactive model to solve conflicts? C1. 1 What are the threats for UEFA coming from G-14? C3. 1 What are the some slender areas to be considered by this model? What are the key success factors for the model? C1. 2 What are the threats for G-14? C3. 2 C1. 3 What would be the consequences of those threats if carried out? C3. 3 How should the model be designed? 10 CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. building OF EUROPEAN FOOTBALL GOVERNANCE AND FOOTBALL THE PYRAMID STRUCTUREThe governance of association football resembles a benefit where each layer takes on different responsibilities in different geographical recordical scope. The formation of this benefit has historical root in the early stages of o rganized football in Britain and it has not been a uniform process. As Britain changed from an agrarian to an industrial society in the deep 18 century, the games fight in the open fields of the countryside were adapted to fount the narrow streets and hard surfaces of the new urban communities. The leisure time unyielding by sun, seasons, and feudal obligation was replaced by the much more circumscribe leisure hours decreed by the artificial light of the factories and the needs of the owners.Improvements in roads and transportation allowed games to be played outside the elapseical anaesthetic village, and as steam trains started to plug into the ever growing towns of Britain, it became possible to play on a national basis the games that the middle class favoured and promoted. This expanding scope involved balance on rules and the formation of a national governing body. 1 th And that is where the profit begins to be formed. With the spread of the sport around the world, t he pyramid started evolving from a local anesthetic and national to an international scope and finally reached its current form as shown in Figure 1. 1 Figure 1. 1 The pyramidal structure of European football FIFA UEFA theme Leagues field of study Associations partingal ASSOCIATIONS CLUBSThe clubs The clubs are the basic cell and the foundation of the pyramid. Originally founded as local associations their initial objective was to offer the local community the possibility of amiable in the sport, thereby promoting the idea of sport for all. With the introduction of a unfaltering challenger, The FA Challenge 1 MURRAY Bill, The worlds game a history of soccer, University of Illinois put forward, 1998, p. 2 11 Cup in 1871, spectator crowds in England began to summation dramatically and in 1901 a crowd of 110,820 turned up to see Tottenham Hotspur and Sheffield United combat the final of the trophy . These crowds were increasingly great(p) birth to the popularisation of footba ll as a spectator sport.Today, the main objective of transcend professional football clubs has shifted from the offer of opportunities to engage in the practice of the sport, to the offer of the spectacle of the game and all the devoted psychological, emotional and genial benefits for the fan. simply the clubs still remain the basis and the primary link of contact lens with the communities. Regional associations Regional associations form the next level although this form of association is not present in all countries. Clubs are usually affiliate to these organisations. Their scope of action is limited to a region within a country in which they are responsible for organising regional championships or coordinate the sport.National associations The first national association to come into scene was the side of meat Football Association, or simply the FA as it is known today. It emerged from the London FA that became virtually the touch on authority for the game in England afte r different regional associations in England came to a compromise agreement in 1877. By 1905 it had achieved the mark of 10. 000 local clubs affiliated to it. The success of the London FA in establishing its incorporate over other regional associations came with the popularity of the Challenge Cup, instituted in 1871, a tilt that is still played today. Also helping to secure the success of the dribbling game was the secureness add up with Scotland which began officially in 1872. 4 3 2Today, national associations similarly organizing club competitions and being responsible for the coordination of a national team to represent the country in international competitions are also the autocratic restrictive and disciplinary body of the sport within the national boundaries, although, as we give see later, they have limited autonomy and have to abide by the rules of UEFA and FIFA. By doing this they are granted a monopolistic position in the national organization of the game, as FIFA as the ultimate body in the pyramid pass on only recognize one association per country. National Leagues nigh countries such as France, Italy or England know another form of organisation with the introduction in the structure of national leagues. The origin of leagues dates back to the England of the end of the 19 century.In 1885, after a series of complaints about athletes judge money and the creation of committees to push-down list with them, followed by threats of serious punishments, the FA legalized professionalism. This meant that players had to be given a regular income. The Challenge Cup was still the main competition. be a knock-out competition, even the best teams could be eliminated in an early round being left(p)(a) with nothing to do. The answer was the Football League. The league was 2 3 4 5 5 th Ibid, p. 9 Ibid, p. 6 Ibid, p. 7 The elite club competitions are respectively organised in these countries by the Ligue Nationale, Lega Calcio and the Premier League . 12 ade up of selected teams that hold to play one another on set dates, on a home and away basis, and promised to field their strongest teams and to give league matches preference over all others. The mortals engaged in the discussions about the new league were basically self-made men, sensitive business owners and industrialists who came from a social course different from that of the men of the FA. With the FA watching anxiously, discussions were held by those in favour of the league. On 8 September 1888 the new football league kicked off competition with cardinal teams. A constitution would be drawn up determining issues such as points scoring transcription, how to touch the gate money, and later, a system of advance from and relegation to a second division.According to its founder and guiding spirit, the Scottish-born Birmingham businessman William McGregor, the aim of the league was to protect the interests of the clubs taking part in its competition. He openly decla red that the league should never aspire to be a lawmaking body by the very nature of things the League must be a selfish body. The English Football League conceded the right of the FA to withstand football in all areas but the organisation of league competition. This meant that the FA was left to incorporate the Challenge Cup, internationals, amateur football and certain matters concerning the rewards and disciplining of the professionals. 6Today, the relationship among national leagues and national associations passim Europe is very similar to the one verified in England in the late 19 th century. man the national association is responsible for the control and development of all aspects and disciplines of football within the national boundaries, the leagues main interest is the commercial development of its major product, a league competition. Although there are tensions from time to time, the two bodies co-habit in relative peace given their share of common interests on the game. UEFA The next level of the pyramid is formed by the Continental confederations, or more specifically in the case of Europe, UEFA The Union of European Football Associations. As the name suggests, UEFA is formed by 52 national associations .It is the governing body of football on the continent of Europe and has as its core mission to safeguard the development of European football at every level of the game and to promote the principles of unity and solidarity, as we go away detail later. Along the corresponding lines of the national associations UEFA enjoys a monopolistic position on the organisation of the game in Europe, guaranteed by the pyramid structure. It is relevant to notice that unlike the reality at the national level, where a league takes from the national association the responsibility of organizing and commercially developing an elite competition among clubs, the figure of the league does not exist at the Continental level. The caper of organizing and commerc ialising European club competition falls into UEFAs direct jurisdiction.FIFA FIFA, is the supreme authority of football in the world. Its creation, in 1904, precedes that of the continental confederations, and thus, its social station structure is also formed by national associations. 7 6 7 MURRAY Bill, The worlds game a history of soccer, University of Illinois foreshorten, 1998, p. 11 arrest a complete list of UEFAs member associations at accessory a. 13 Technically, the continental confederations, like UEFA, are not members of FIFA, but are recognized bodies and have the right to elect the vice presidents and members of FIFAs Executive Committee. FIFAs bearing is to promote and develop the game of football throughout the world, and to be the uardian of the regulations of the game. Unlike national associations, national leagues and continental confederations, FIFA currently does not organise club football competitions, although it regulates over matters that impact club foo tball reality, such as absent systems, and the coordinated international calendar. FIFAs activities as far as competition organisation is concerned are currently limited to international competitions among national teams. FIFA is responsible for holding the whole pyramid together. The ownership of the FIFA World Cup, the roughly important wizard sporting event in the world, and a large and universal membership base are its main sources of berth.By making use of regulations such as the need for a national association to be a member of a continental federation for two years before being granted membership to FIFA , and by obliging continental confederations to obey with and enforce compliance with the FIFA statutes, regulations and decisions, and to master that international leagues or any other such combination of clubs or leagues shall not be formed without its consent and approval of FIFA , or by prohibiting affiliated national associations and their clubs to play matches or entertain other sports contacts with associations which are not affiliated to FIFA or with clubs belonging to them without FIFAs consent , it guarantees that the layers and the monopoly of the pyramid in the organisation of football are respected. 1. 1. 2. THE EUROPEAN FOOTBALL diligence 11 10 9 8Definition of the Football labor Many quite a little resent the use of the term business to describe the activities performed by the main actors in the European football scenario. However, it is undeniable that European football has undergone an accentuated process of commercialisation, especially in the last fifteen years, which has brought significant amounts of money into the game. sort of of engaging in an emotional and semantic discussion to determine if football is a game, if it is a business or if it is as much a business as it is a game, we will define as football business the group of commercial activities performed by the actors in the football industry, and we will define as football industry the group of legal entities whose commercial activities are rooted in the game of football.However, such a description of the football industry is a very broad one and for the purpose of this paper it needs to be narrowed down as proposed in Figure 1. 2. 8 9 10 11 FIFA has currently 204 member associations (one per country), which represents a larger membership base than the UN. FIFA Statutes, art 4, par. 1 FIFA Statutes, art. 9, par. 3 FIFA Statutes, art. 57, par. 1 14 Figure 1. 2 The structure of the football industry12 gamblings pains Football another(prenominal) Sports Sporting goods Facility hooked sports go Sport consultation services Spectacle sport Hybrid Sport Participant Sport Club Football National team Football Participant services Spectator services Sponsorship services Media servicesLicence services Scope of this paper distant the scope of this paper The product-based typology proposed in Figure 1. 2 divides the sport industry into three main segments Sporting goods, Facility qualified sports services and Sport consultation services. Sporting goods companies producing apparel, shoes, equipment, team and/or league merchandise, sport authorize products. Examples of companies in this segment entangle Nike, Adidas and Reebok. Sport consultation services companies provide advice in areas such as management, medical, design, building and maintenance, programming, among others. Examples include IMG, Octagon, and InFront. Facility dependent sports services organisations fling sport as their end product be it as spectacle (matches, competitions) or as access to betrothal. This segment, like the others, can be further subdivided in three categories spectacle, participant and hybrid sport. Spectacle sport the most prominent feature of organisations in this stratum is the ability to generate upstanding revenue enhancements directly or indirectly from spectators. Here, athletes are usually professionals. Examples of organ isations in this category are Manchester United, Juventus and the English Premier League. 12 Adapted from WESTERBEEK & SMITH, Sport Business in the Global Marketplace, Palgrave, 2003, p. 87 15 Participant sport this is the category of entities providing opportunities for people to engage in sporting activities, usually on a non-professional basis, like gyms, community sports centres and amateur sport clubs. Hybrid sport in this category, sports organisations offer a mix of spectacle and participant sport. As Westerbeek and Smith 13 point out, governing bodies are likely to be hybrid sport organisations as they are charged with developing a mass interlocking base for the sport with the ambition of securing its longevity, while encouraging and promoting the few undischarged athletes that can perform in elite spectacle sport, providing the sport with the exposure so essential to its popularity, while developing the basis for spectacle sports revenue streams.Once the segmentation is understood, we can then define the European Football Industry in this paper as the group of legal entities acting in the facility dependent sports services, specifically within the boundaries of the spectacle and hybrid sport category in the territory covered by the fifty two member associations of UEFA. It is important to find that this industry is built on two main pillars, club football and national team football, that in conclusion have to share part of the same resources top-level players, spectatorship, calendar time, among others. Dimension and Growth of the European Football Industry thither is no reliable data about the size of the European Football Industry as defined above.Deloitte & Touche estimates that, in the season 2000/2001, it should be cockeyed to national team football in Europe is in the range of 90-10% respectively. 15 10 billion. 14 A possible breakdown of this number is shown in Figure 1. 3. We reckon that the split between club football and Another impor tant consideration is the fact that interior(prenominal)ated help football (in top and pooh-pooh divisions) is by far the most important segment of the industry. As we can see from Figure 1. 3, the lions share of the industry is represented by top-division club football in the domestic leagues, amounting to 6. 6bn, thereof the so-called big-five leagues (England, Italy, Spain, Germany and France) dominate 78%.Put in perspective, those numbers are not very impressive, as the entire European Football Industry would not even feature in the ranking occurrence Global cholecalciferol 16 in 2002. What is impressive though, is the consistent fast pace with which this industry has been growing over the past 10 years. The top-division clubs at the big-five leagues all grew at similar rates from the mid-1990s to 2001 between 18% to 24% per annum, 17 while UEFAs unite revenues grew at an impressive rate of 29% per annum 18 during the nine-year dot comprised between the seasons 1992/19 93 and 2001/2002 mainly 13 14 15 WESTERBEEK & SMITH, Sport Business in the Global Marketplace, Palgrave, 2003 Deloitte & Touche Annual Review of Football finance June 2002 p. 16 A priori, by looking at Figure 1. , this correspondence might sound counter-intuitive but we must not forget that a share of UEFAs and the European federations revenues is based on club football. The Fortune Global 500 ranks the 500 largest companies in the world based on their global revenues. In the 2002 ranking, Wal Mart appears as number 1 with global revenues around US$220 billion, while Takenaka, a Japanese company in the construction business ranks 500 with global revenues slightly above US$10bn. DELOITTE & TOUCHE Annual Review of Football Finance 2001/2000 p. 4 UEFAs consolidated revenues including amounts paid beforehand UEFA CEO Annual Report 2002 p. 33 16 17 18 16 riven by the harvest of the UEFA Champions League as we will show later. And although these growth rates are recently bragging(a ) sign of slowing the pace, we believe it is more a matter of an internal adjustment of the industry than the apocalyptical actualisation of the burst of a breathe as many analysts like to put it. Most of the economic fundaments financial backing the growth of the European Football Industry are solid, as just the latest downsizing in the jimmy of broadcast rights paid for some properties and the breakdown of companies like ISL and KirchMedia, we do not see signs of an actual lessen in the demand for European Football.Much on the contrary, as we have seen that the TV audience for the 2002/03 UEFA Champions League grew by 9% in relation to the anterior year, meaning that the competition produced an median(a) live audience of 46 million viewers per match-week in the larger markets. 19 Figure 1. 3 Estimated market size of the European Football Industry 2000/2001 billion 1. 3 1. 2 6. 6 Big-5 Leagues 10. 0 0. 7 0. 2 10 year average 24% 17% 14% 13% 10% 78% England Italy Spain Germa ny France growth > 20% p. a. Top division domestic club football1 Lower division domestic club football3 UEFA Club Competitions2 Annualized EURO Cup2 Sources 1) Deloitte & Touche, 2) UEFA , 3) Authors estimatesRevenues of National Associations, Leagues, UEFA, others3 Total1 It is important to notice though, that if the industry has experienced significant growth in revenues in the last decade, profitability has not kept pace. This is mainly because of the rise in the spending on players in a phenomenon known as the prune juice effect, which refers to the course for revenues generated by football clubs to simply pass through the clubs accounts on the way to players pockets. Just to illustrate that point, as already mentioned, the consolidated revenues of the top-division clubs in the big-five leagues grew at an annual rate between 18% and 24% between the seasons 1995/96 and 2000/01.In the same period the ratio wages/revenues went from 47% to 60% in England, and from 57% to 75% in Italy, just to mention two of the major markets. profitability 21 20 The result is a plunge in the 23 of the industry in the major markets 22 with the most accentuated cases being Italy going from 1% to 19% in six seasons and Spain going from 7% to 28% in four seasons. 19 20 21 22 23 UEFAs champion audience, Sportbusiness. com, June 3 2003 abstract of the authors based on the Deloitte and Touche Review of Football Finances 2002 Measured as Operating shekels / Revenues The exception is Germany that managed to keep its profitability between 8% and 10% during the period on that point are no available date for Spanish top-division clubs in the seasons 1999/00 and 2000/01 17Business Model of the Football Industry The current business model of the European Football Industry relies on four main revenue streams 1. flout day revenues Expenditure of fans on-site, mainly derived from gate receipts (including season tickets). 2. Media rights nurse paid by media companies to acquire the rights of broadcasting a specific sport property. 3. Sponsorship Mainly derived from brand/name placing on team shirts and around stadia. 4. Other commercial revenues Mainly revenues from licensed merchandise, but also includes conference and ply services. Figure 1. 4 gives an overview on the symmetrys of these revenue streams for a sample of domestic leagues. Figure 1. Breakdown of top-division clubs revenue streams 2000/01 16% 31% 18% 16% 42% 34% 40% 25% 54% 39% 51% 45% 51% 20% 18% 20% 12% 4% 41% 43% 13% 30% 17% 9% 15% 22% 14% 18% 15% 12% 13% England Italy Spain (97/98) get wind Germany France Portugal Netherlands Norway Matchday Broadcast Sponsorship (includes all commercial revenues for England) Other commercial Source Deloitte & Touche As we can see from the graph above, TV is in general the whizz largest contributor to clubs revenues in the big-five leagues. According to Deloitte & Touche in the season 2000/01, TV responded for 2. 4 billion, or 46% of the 5. 2 billion total revenues of the top-division clubs in the big-five leagues.However, this proportion will vary significantly agree to the size of the TV market in which the club is located. There is a clear difference between the relevance of TV monies for the top-division clubs in the big-five leagues and the top-division clubs in other mid-size or small leagues like Portugal, Netherlands and Norway, as shown in the graph. The Fan The Heart of the Football Industry Although the importance of telly and sponsors is clear in the current business model of the European Football Industry, which might lead us to cogitate that those are the most important actors in this industry, the dynamics of the industry rely in conclusion on the interest of spectators. Figure 1. shows a simplified social occasion of value relationships between actors in this industry. 18 Figure 1. 5 Summarized Value range of a function of the Football Industry Simplified Simplified 2 Leagues Sponsors ? Clubs B C 1 3 ? Te levision A Football Fans Population celebrate For the sake of simplification this map does not consider some important stakeholders in the Football Industry such as governing bodies and federations, players, clubs shareholders, national teams, among others The cornerstone of value for the Football Industry is relationship between fans and the clubs. In this relationship the clubs supply the fans with the game and all the emotional, social and psychological benefits attached to it.The fans, in turn, provide the club with financial resources in the form of gate receipts, season tickets or membership fees and purchase of licensed merchandise besides the emotional association, support, loyalty, exposure, among other non-tangible benefits. Relationship illustrates the fact that clubs need the league structure to create the on-field competition environment required by fans. And the quality of the competition, thrifty in the quality of teams taking part in that competition and in the le vel of competitive balance, is one of the most important drivers of demand for football. This relationship between clubs and leagues 24 is one of the ell-known peculiarities of the Football Industry. In any other industry the ideal objective of the players would be to achieve a monopolistic position driving competitors out of business, whereas in the Football Industry this is not only impossible, but also not desirable, since clubs need to cooperate for the joint- oc transfuseation of the game. However, there are inherent conflicts between teams since the league structure also determines a teams individual share of industry profits. Relationship reflects the fact that part of the football fans are not necessarily attached to one specific club but have overall interest in a particular competition.The market strategy of the UEFA Champions League has the benefit of modify this link eventually intending to increase the share of the population interested for European football disregar ding of a particular team allegiance. In the left side of the map we have television companies. Traditionally, revenues of free-to-air television companies are based on publicizing from sponsors. In order to attract sponsors, 24 Leagues or whatever entity responsible for organising a football competition 19 television companies must be able to attract audience, and this is done by offering content. That is represented by relationship A. Television companies offer content to the world in the quest for an audience.By getting an audience, television companies become attractive to sponsors. That is shown in relationship C. Sponsors will pay to use television as a channel to advertise their products and services to their target markets among the audience. Pay-TV companies have an incremental revenue stream. In addition to advertisement from sponsors they rely on subscription fees from pour downrs interested in having access to exclusive content. In both cases though, it is clear that audience is key. In markets where the interest for a particular sport captures a large share of the population, which is the case of football in the big-five leagues, the link represented in relationships 25TV companies and sponsors realise the importance of and appetency to exploit it. That is represented by and relationships ? and ?. In relationship ? , TV companies pay to acquire the right (if possible exclusive) to broadcast individual matches or competitions in the go for to attract an audience. In relationship ? sponsors pay to associate themselves with teams or leagues both as a way to get visibility to sports fans and as a way to associate their brand with the sporting brand they are sponsoring, thus exploring the goodwill present in the link between the fan and the sport. Their ultimate goal is to get the population to consume their products and services.In all cases it is simple to understand that the ultimate source of value for the Football Industry is the interest of the fan for the sport. The fan is the TV viewer, the pay-TV subscriber, the stadium spectator, and potentially the end consumer of the sponsors products and services. The larger the fan base and the larger its identification with the sport, the high the probability that this sport will attract the interest of TV and sponsors. Of course, the potential value of the Football Industry in a particular region will depend also on the size of the TV and the advertisement markets in that region, which in the end bear relation with the demographics of the region. Thus the focal point of he Football Industry is the football fan, 26 and that is the solid ground why it is crucial for clubs, leagues and governing bodies to understand what drives spectator interest for European football, in other words, what are the drivers of demand for football. Demand for Football Spectatorship Stefan Szymanski summarizes the most important factors driving fan interest for football in three classic elements 2 7 Quality of the game Uncertainty of issuance (of the match and of the competition) Success of the fans own team 25 26 England, Italy, Spain, Germany and France There are several studies intending to qualify the football fan according to different levels of commitment and interest.For the sake of this paper we qualify as football fan any person interested in the game regardless of the level of commitment. Interview with Stefan SZYMANSKI, Professor of Economics, Imperial College London 27 20 The quality of the game would touch on aspects such as the diversion and spectacle, the aesthetic pleasure of watching the game, the quality of the visiting team. The doubtfulness of effect has two major aspects uncertainty of end of the match and the uncertainty of outcome of a competition. About the uncertainty of match outcome, the review of the literature shows that generally, the surrounding(prenominal) the result of the match is expected to be, the more attractive the game will be to fans.Along the same lines fans would be less enthusiastic about a game in which the result is seen as a foregone conclusion. moreover this uncertainty must be preserved at all costs, as the integrity of the game is completely connected to the integrity of the result. 28 The uncertainty of outcome of the competition is measured in terms of competitive balance. There is general agreement that match attendance will be influenced by the closeness of the championship race. As more teams have a probability of reaching the finals or play-offs, fans will expect a close contest and anticipate high quality play. This anticipation will be reflected in a higher level of fan enjoyment and consumer avail and a boost to crowd size. 29Success of the fans own team implies that supporters achieve satisfaction from identifying with a lovely team. Arguably, a team that consistently loses will have difficulty attracting large crowds. active supporter bases than their domestic peers. But if a winning season contributes to the increase of the commitment of the supporter base of a specific club and if the fan base, as argued before, is the principal source of goodwill for a club, it seems obvious to state that clubs, as individual entities, will seek to maximize their winning ratios as a way to increase the supporter base. This practice, if successful, will eventually conflict with the element of uncertainty of outcome.The argufy for clubs and organisers of competitions is to understand the optimal combination between those three elements (quality of the game, uncertainty of outcome and success of own team) in the determination of demand for football as they frequently can conflict among themselves. Conclusion In summary, as much as we want to avoid the discussion of football being a business or a game, we must recognise that the dynamics of the football industry present some specific characteristics that bother us conclude that football cannot be taken as just a regular busines s. These special characteristics fall mainly in three inter- tie in areas 1. Football clubs are cultural and community assets with associated sporting and community objectives.There is a long and bare(a) academic debate arguing that football clubs are utility 30 That could help to explain why clubs like Manchester United or actually Madrid have larger and more 28 In that perceive potential contractual clauses like the one suggested by the press in the Beckham transfer from Manchester United to Real Madrid, in which the acquiring club will pay a bonus to the ceding club based on the formers future performances at championships at which both teams compete could allow for the publics perception of match fixing between the two clubs in a specific scenario, which could eventually hurt semipermanent demand for the game. WESTERBEEK & SMITH, Sport Business in the Global Marketplace, Palgrave, 2003, p. 64 29 30Although formation of fan basis is a more complex phenomenon and depends on man y other factors apart from a teams winning record at a given time. 21 taprs pursuing non-pecuniary objectives kinda than maximisation of economic value as any other business. Sloan 31 argues that while in US professional team sports, many teams have an established track record of profitability, in the case of European football teams, profit making clubs have been very much the exception and not the rule. He goes further explaining that chairmen and directors with a controlling interest in football clubs are usually individuals who have achieved success in business in other fields.Their motives for investing may include a desire for strength or prestige, or simple sporting enthusiasm a wish to see the local club succeed on the field of play. In many cases profit of the club seems unlikely to be the major motivating factor. As one of our experts interviewed puts it Clubs are too much under the control of local business owners or major individuals in the community looking for perso nal gain. When these people take the reigns of a club usually they end up satisfying themselves. Many of them have come to my office and state For me, investing in a club is just like having a PR campaign. Rather than giving money to an advertising agency, I procure a club and since the press talks a lot about me, it has an equivalent effect. . The relationship between the supporter and the club can be very different to a standard customercompany relationship. Lomax 32 explains that most supporters lead their clubs at a young age and then stick to this select however irrational it may seem at face value. Football supporters are key stakeholders contributing to the club not just by being loyal customers but also by actively adding to the match day spectacle, and often committing financially to keep their club afloat as it was the case with the English supporters of Northampton FC that contributed with money in a fundraising campaign to excuse the clubs financial distress. 3.As already mentioned, the Football Industry depends on both competition and co-operation among clubs. Football then redistributes income from leading to lagging clubs (and leagues) in order to promote competitive balance. This redistribution of income would not be allowed in most traditional industries. The combination of those three factors makes the dynamics of the football industry special in relation to most of the other regular forms of businesses. 1. 1. 3. STAKEHOLDERS M AP After analysing the governance structure and the dynamics of the European Football Industry, it makes sense to map its stakeholders in a more comprehensive way. Figure 1. 6 depicts those stakeholders 31SLOANE Peter, The economic science of professional football The football club as a utility maximiser, Scottish Journal of Political Economy pp. 121-145, June 1971 32 LOMAX Brian, Democracy and Fandom ontogenesis a supporters trust at Northampton Town FC, in GARLAND John, MALCOLM Dominic and ROWE Michael (Ed),Th e early of Football Challenges for the 21st century, Frank Cass, 2000 22 Figure 1. 6 Stakeholders social occasion of the European Football Industry Non Non Exhaustive Exhaustive Fans / Spectators Club Patrons Clubs UEFA entrepot Market G-14 European Union Players National Leagues National Associations FIFA European Football Industry Media Sponsors Press Once the stakeholders are identified we will make use of table 1. to map their interests, analyse their negociate power, identify the main groups over which they exercise their power and qualify the types of pressures suffered by each group. Some of the points covered in this section are introductory and will be explained in more details later, but we think it is important to bear in mind the relationships described below, as they will be steadying to understand the nature of the conflicts treated in this paper. Table 1. 1 General overview of stakeholders interests, power and pressures Stakeholder Main Interests Identificati on Entertainment Power Focal point of the industry but not sufficiently organised (H/M)* Vulnerability not sufficiently organised in any case emotionally attached to the game, will acquiesce poor treatment Internal conflict between individual and conjunctive objectives stuff exerted force received Fans / Spectators Spectacle Psychological satisfaction Social integrating Immediate pressure for sport performance over clubs Community Fans (H/M) Press (H) Players (H) instancy on Governing Bodies and leagues over a number of issues related to the regulation of the game (Revenue sharing, competition format, supply of players to national teams, calendar) Patrons (H) UEFA (H) G-14 (H/M) Media (H/M) FIFA (H) Sponsors (H) Leagues (H) Stock Market (H) Nat. Assoc. (H) Increase demand for football Clubs On pitch performance limited by budget constraints Basic cell of the industry, controls the most valuable assets for the production of the game (H)* Short-term view Little control over main cost items Not a homogeneous and organized group Lacks direct representation at higher decision making level * soaring (H), fair (M), Low (L) 23 Table 1. 1 General overview of stakeholders interests, power and pressures go on Stakeholder Main Interests bewilder the following of the game in Europe Power* Vulnerability Pressure exerted Pressure received* G-14 (H) Other clubs (M) FIFA (H) UEFA limit tight control of the game in Europe farm solidarity Promote port for all Develop other disciplines of the game Develop the following of the game universally Detains the natural monopoly in the organisation of the game in Europe, holds the key for eligibility of players and clubs at competitions (H) Relies too much on elite club competition to fund its activities Pressure on clubs and players to comply with the regulations and principles EU (H) Press (H) Fans (L) Media (M) Sponsors (L) Players (M) Leagues (L) FIFA Keep a strong control of the game Promote solidar ity Develop other disciplines of the game Content to get audience from the fans Is the supreme body of world football (H) Relies too much on one single national team event to fund its activitiesPressure on national associations, confederations, clubs to comply with the rules and regulations of the game EU (H) Media (M) Sponsors (L) Confederations (M) Media Has an interest in the game as long as it generates audience. Will switch to other content options as soon as it does not Content to get readership from the fans Is the single major investor in the game. Without TV money Football collapses (H) Limited bargaining power over the price of top events Limited concern about the long term issues of the game Subject to competition law Pressure on leagues and UEFA for changes in the format in the quest for immediate rise in audienceFans (H) EU (H) Internal competition (H) Sponsors (H) Press Extremely influential over fans (H) Has the control over the national game, is represented with decision power at UEFA and FIFA, owns the national teams a major source of passion (H/M) Usually controls the central marketing of domestic competitions (M) In the top level, due to the limited supply of natural endowment and due to identification of fans (H). In the lower level due to the high replaceability (L) Credibility It is the Big Brother watching the steps of Clubs, National Associations, Leagues and Players Fans (H) Other types of media (H) National Leagues (H) Players (H) National Associations Aligned with FIFA and UEFA at the domestic level Being confined to national borders may suffer from globalisation tendencies Pressure on the clubs, and on the leagues G-14 (H) Clubs (M) Fans (M) Media (H) Press (H) National leagues Organise club competition at the domestic level Commercial optimisation of domestic competition Being confined to national borders may suffer from globalisation tendencies Pressure on the clubs for cooperation over the quest for individual obje ctives, pressure on national associations Clubs (H) Media (H) Fans (L) Self realisation Players Financial security Status In general not too organised Incredibly risky and specific life story shortClubs (H/M) Pressure on the clubs for better labour conditions Fans (H) Press (H) Nat. Assoc. (H/M) Leagues (M) * highschool (H), Medium (M), Low (L) 24 Table 1. 1 General overview of stakeholders interests, power and pressures continued Stakeholder Main Interests Guarantee fair trade in the industry do Federations to implement professional management Keep the balance among football and other industries Increase representation of top clubs in the decision making process of professional club football at international level sack clubs on current financial challenges Power Vulnerability Pressure exerted Pressure received EU Can change the structure in which the professional level of the game is managed (H)Most of the time acts like an observer, not taking action until an actor complains Do not represent all top clubs Not officially recognised by UEFA Cannot impede UEFA or FIFA to directly deal with individual member clubs Threatening behaviour Relegation / Promotion system Eligibility for international competitions Pressure on the governing bodies on anti-competitive practices Industry sectors (H) fraction states (H) G-14 (The Lobby Group) Represents the major top clubs in Europe (H) Pressure on UEFA, FIFA, national associations, other clubs and the EU Fans (L), UEFA (H), Member clubs (L) Stock Market maximation of shareholder valueImportant source of funds for some clubs, but not very representative in the industry as a whole (M/L) Too dependant on the highs and lows of sporting performance Subject to regulations made by people who may not be profit seekers Limited aesthesia to the long term peculiarities of the game Limited control over the sponsorship agreement Pressure on the listed clubs for diversification of revenues and for financia l returns Regulatory bodies (H) Fans (L) Visibility to fans Sponsors Association with the goodwill of clubs and competitions One of the major sources of revenue in the Industry(H) Reduced bargaining power over the price of top events Internal competition in the sponsorship industryPressure on competition organisers, clubs and players Shareholders (H) Other sponsors (H) Club Patrons Prestige Value transfer to other businesses Owner and benefactor of the club (H) Too much emotionally involved with the club Over players for pitch performance Fans (M), Players (H), Community (H) *High (H), Medium (M), Low (L) 25 1. 1. 4. PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL COMPETITION schedule The pyramid structure of football governance, along with the international nature of the game impose additional challenges to the organisation of competition in Europe. All layers of the pyramid rely mainly on the organisation and participation at competitions to generate the funds for their activities.Be it FIFA with it s quadrennial World Cup or biennial Confederations Cup , UEFA with the Euro or the UEFA Champions League, the National Associations with the participation in the international competitions for national teams organised by FIFA and UEFA or with the organisation of the domestic cups, the national leagues with the organisation of the domestic league, or the clubs participating in domestic and international competitions, all actors depend ultimately on competition to subsist. The complexity in the organisation of the competition calendar comes from the fact that the actors have to share the same restricted resources players and time.National team competitions, to be able to exploit their full commercial potential, have to count on the presence of top players, often the same players that are fighting for top teams in club competitions. International club competitions, along the same lines, hope to count with the participation of the most popular clubs, the same ones participating in domes tic competitions. All of this constrained by the fact that there are only 52 weeks in the year, and there is a physical limitation to the number of matches a player can play in a given period of time. Thus it is not an easy task to find the right combination of supply among the different types of competitions the one that will maximise the utility for the football fan. Figure 1. shows the configuration of the football calendar for the season 2002/2003, displaying the major competitions currently being played at the elite level of football in Europe. Figure 1. 7 European Competition schedule Elite Professional Football Season 2002/2003 2002 June July August September October November declination 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 calendar week Domestic League1) Domestic Cup6) UEFA Champions League2) UEFA Cup2) UEFA Intertoto Cup Super Cup / Intercontinental FIFA World Cup7) Euro (qualification) International Friendlies3) 4) Na tio n Te al am Cl u b Week 4) Domestic League1) Domestic Cup6) UEFA Champions League2) UEFA Cup2) UEFA Intertoto Cup Super Cup / Intercontinental FIFA World Cup7) Euro (qualification) International Friendlies3) 003 Season 02/03 January February March April May J Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Matchdates 38 10 23 15 10 2 9 8 4 Na tio n Te al am Notes Cl ub 1) Based on the English Premier League 2) Including adjustment rounds 3) According to FIFA Coordinated International Calendar 4) Week 22 starts on Monday May 26th and finishes on Sunday June 1st 5) Weekend matches include Monday and Friday for the Domestic League 6) Based on the FA Cup Starting at the 3rd round when Premier League clubs join the cup 7) maximal of 7 matches per national team Key Weekend matches5) Mid-week matches Source Analysis of the authors based on data from Rec. Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF), UEFA and FIFA 26 Figure 1. 7 shows that the majority of the annua l football activity is based on domestic club football, including a domestic league and a domestic cup. Although the graph is based on the Premier League and the FA Cup, the activity in other countries follow a similar pattern. There is usually a domestic league being played from August to May mainly during the weekends with a number of match dates varying slightly depending on the number of participants at the top division of the league (usually between 18 and 20 in the major markets), and there is a domestic cup usually being played during the mid weeks over around 10 rounds. he UEFA Intertoto Cup. UEFA Champions League Eligibility for the UEFA Champions League depends on the technical performance of clubs at their domestic leagues, and on the ranking of national associations prepared by UEFA. As an example, the champions and the runners-up at the English Premier League automatically secure a berth among the 32 participants at the UEFA Champions League, while the third and fourth places will play at a qualifying stage. The same is valid for Spain and Italy. But countries ranked lower by UEFA receive a reduced number of berths for the competitions with some countries receiving only a place at the qualifying phases.The competition is preceded by three qualifying phases played by 56 clubs entering in different stages. From the qualifying phases 16 clubs eventually gain access to the competition. Those clubs join the other 16 that secured an automatic berth, totalling 32 clubs. Currently, the 32 clubs play a first group stage (eight groups of four teams) with the two top teams in each group qualifying for a second group stage (four groups of four teams). The group stages are followed by a knock out stage (quarter finals and semi finals) with home and away matches followed by a one leg final match at a predetermined venue. For the season 2003/04 UEFA has refractory to eliminate the second group stage, meaning that the sixteen clubs ualifying from the first group stage (eight groups of four teams) will enter directly into the knock out stage (eighth finals, quarter finals, semi finals, and the final). This will reduce the maximum number of matches per club from 17 to 13. UEFA Cup Eligibility for the UEFA Cup is open to teams finishing in leading positions behind the champions in the domestic top divisions, besides the winners of the national cup competition, the winners of the league cup competition in certain countries, the three winners of the final matches at the UEFA Intertoto Cup and three clubs from UEFAs annual fair play assessment. The UEFA Cup is a knock-out competition played home and away (except for the final match which is played in a one leg match) and is preceded by a qualifying stage.At the third round, the eight teams falling in third place at the first group stage of the UEFA Champions League, also join the UEFA Cup. Figure 1. 8 Illustrates the format of the UEFA Cup, which is currently being revise by UEFA. 34 33 In the i nternational scenario, there are three main club competitions currently being organised by UEFA, The UEFA Champions League, The UEFA Cup and 33 The domestic cup usually counts on the participation of clubs from many professional divisions, but the top clubs will join the cup at an advanced stage. Not considering the qualifying rounds 34 27 Figure 1. 8 Format of the UEFA Cup of Clubs 82 41 + 52 96 48 24 + 3 From Intertoto Qualifying Stage First dilate Second Round + 8 From UCL 32 16 8 4 2 Champion Third Round Eighth Finals