Thursday, January 31, 2019

Essay --

along with the instruction of science technology and popularity of data processors and internet, network becomes an important tool in social communication. We are studying in the university and we need computers to enrich our minds. Computers hatful non only illuminate us fit into a bran- newly surround faster, but as well give notice provide convenience to us. What else, they can also help us learn more abilities and new technology. So in my opinion, computers should be allowed to bring to take aim when we are freshmen. Firstly, computers can make us get news about the new environment and be transgress of it faster. We may get worried when we are in a new school. The feeling must be much stronger if this is the first duration we bring out our parents. We do not know where we can find a bank, a restaurant, etc . But if we have a computer, we will find them on the computer maps. What else, we can know the important information which is announced by our scho ol at the first time. We live in the world which is wide-cut of information, so we should develop the ability to use the useful information for ourselves. I... Essay -- Along with the development of science technology and popularity of computers and internet, network becomes an important tool in interpersonal communication. We are studying in the university and we need computers to enrich our minds. Computers can not only make us fit into a new environment faster, but also can provide convenience to us. What else, they can also help us learn more abilities and new technology. So in my opinion, computers should be allowed to bring to school when we are freshmen. Firstly, computers can make us get news about the new environment and be part of it faster. We may get worried when we are in a new school. The feeling must be much stronger if this is the first time we leave our parents. We do not know where we can find a bank, a restaurant, etc . But if we ha ve a computer, we will find them on the computer maps. What else, we can know the important information which is announced by our school at the first time. We live in the world which is full of information, so we should develop the ability to use the useful information for ourselves. I...

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

The Natural Approach Stephen Krashen’s Theory of Second Language

THE NATURAL APPROACH Stephen Krashens Theory of Second Language accomplishment Language acquisition does non require extensive use of assured grammatic rules, and does not require tedious drill. Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the home run dustup natural communication in which speakers be concerned not with the form of their utterances just now with the messages they be conveying and consciousness. The go around rules atomic number 18 therefore those that supply comprehensible stimulant drug in diminished anxiousness situations, containing messages that students really want to hear.These manners do not force early occupation in the s go forthhward base dustup, moreover allow students to produce when they ar ready, recognizing that all overture comes from supplying communicative and comprehensible input, and not from forcing and righting intersection. In the real world, conversations with benevolent native speakers who atomic number 18 willing to help the get downr understand are very helpful. Introduction Stephen Krashen (University of Southern atomic number 20) is an expert in the field of linguistics, specializing in theories of language acquisition and development.Much of his recent research has involved the tuition of non- position and bilingual language acquisition. During the past 20 years, he has published well over 100 books and articles and has been invited to deliver over 300 lectures at universities by means ofout the join States and Canada. This is a brief description of Krashens widely chi dischargeen and well received conjecture of insurgent language acquisition, which has had a large impact in all areas of irregular language research and teaching since the 1980s.The infixed appeal (NA) is a product of Stephen Krashen, an applied linguist at the University of Southern California and Tracy Terrell, a teacher of Spanish in California. Krashens work on second language acquisition and T errells teaching experiences form the bases of the earthy Approach. The principles and practices of this new go about suffer been published in The Natural Approach (Krashen and Terrell, 1983). The book contains conjectural sections prepared by Krashen and sections on implementation and classroom procedures prepared in the important by Terrell. The most triking proposal of the NA opening is that adults toilette advance acquire second languages and that the ability to pick up languages does not disappear at puberty. Thus, Krashens contribution to Chomskys LAD proposition is that adults follow the same principles of Universal Grammar. The supposition behind the NA implies that adults can acquire all but the phonologic aspect of whatever contrary language, by using their ever-active LAD. What sours adults different from children is their sneak problem solving skills that make them consciously branch the grammar of a foreign language.Therefore, adults mother cardinal paths to follow Acquisition and encyclopaedism. However, children have only nonpareil Acquisition. In their book, Krashen and Terrell refer to their method of picking up ability in another language directly without instruction in its grammar as the traditional approach. They consider their approach as a traditional nonpareil whereas umpteen methodologists consider Grammar version Method as the traditional method. For Krashen, even Grammar Translation Method is not as old and traditional as the method of acquiring a language in its natural environment, a method which has been used for hundreds of thousands of years.The term natural emphasizes that the principles behind the NA are idealualized to conform to the realistic principles found in successful second language acquisition. One whitethorn think that the Natural Approach and the Natural Method are similar. The Natural Method (or the Direct Method) and the Natural Approach differ in that the occasion lays more emphasis on teacher monologues, formal questions and answers, and error correction. Krashen and Terrell whole step that the Natural Approach is in many ways the natural, direct method rediscoveredand it is similar to other communicative approaches being developed now.The Natural Approach, standardized TPR, is regarded as a comprehension-based approach because of its emphasis on sign delay(silent period) in the production of language. What is novel is that the NA sharpenes on exposure to input instead of grammar practice, and on emotional preparedness for acquisition to take place. II. theoretic BASIS OF THE NATURAL APPROACH II. 1. Theory of Language Krashen regards communication as the main function of language. The focus is on teaching communicative abilities. The superiority of meaning is emphasized.Krashen and Terrell believe that a language is essentially its lexicon. They stress the importance of vocabulary and thought language as a vehicle for communicating meanings and messages. A ccording to Krashen, acquisition can take place only when citizenry comprehend messages in the TL. Briefly, the hitch of language that the Natural Approach enters consists of lexical items, organises and messages. The lexicon for both perception and production is considered critical in the organization and interpretation of messages.In Krashens view, acquisition is the natural preoccupation of language rules by using language for communication. This operator that linguistic competence is achieved via input containing structures at the interlanguage + 1 direct (i +1) that is, via comprehensible input. II. 2. Theory of Language skill (1) The Acquisition-Learning scheme Krashen, in his theory of second language acquisition (SLA)suggested that adults have two different ways of ontogenesis competence in second languages Acquisition and breeding. There are two independent ways of exploitation ability in second languages. Acquisition is a subconscious fulfill like in all imp ortant ways to the process children utilize in acquiring their first language, and learning , which is a conscious process that resolutenesss in intimate about the rules of language (Krashen 19851). The Acquisition-Learning distinction is the most fundamental of all the hypotheses in Krashens theory and the most widely known among linguists and language practitioners. According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second language performance the acquired system and the learned system.The acquired system or acquisition is the product of a subconscious process very similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their first language. It requires meaningful interaction in the take language natural communication in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act. The learned system or learning is the product of formal instruction and it comprises a conscious process which guides in conscious knowledge about t he language, for example knowledge of grammar rules.According to Krashen learning is less important than acquisition. Krashen believes that the result of learning, learned competence (LC) functions as a monitor or editor. That is, term AC is responsible for our fluent production of sentences, LC makes correction on these sentences every before or after their production. This kind of conscious grammar correction, monitoring, occurs most typically in a grammar exam where the learner has enough time to focus on form and to make use of his conscious knowledge of grammar rules (LC) as an aid to acquired competence.The way to develop learned competence is fairly painless analysing the grammar rules consciously and practising them through exercises. But what Acquisition / Learning Distinction system predicts is that learning the grammar rules of a foreign/second language does not result in subconscious acquisition. In other words, what you consciously learn does not necessarily become s ubconsciously acquired through conscious practice, grammar exercises and the like. Krashen formulates this idea in his well-known statement that learning does not became acquisition.It is at this item where Krashen receives major criticism. (2) The Natural Order Hypothesis According to the hypothesis, the acquisition of grammatical structures proceeds in a predicted progression. Certain grammatical structures or morphemes are acquired before others in first language acquisition and there is a similar natural order in SLA. The average order of acquisition of grammatical morphemes for English as an acquired language is given below -Ing&8212&8212Aux&8212&8212&8212 unrhythmic&8212&8212Regular Past Plural&8212>Article&8212->Past&8212&8212&8212->3rd Sing.The importee of natural order is not that second or foreign language teaching materials should be arranged in accordance with this sequence but that acquisition is subconscious and free from conscious intervention (Ellidokuzoglu, 1992). (3) The Input Hypothesis This hypothesis relates to acquisition, not to learning. Krashen claims that people acquire language best by understanding input that is a little beyond their present level of competence. Consequently, Krashen believes that comprehensible input (that is, i + 1) should be provided. The input should be relevant and not grammatically sequenced.The input should also be in sufficient quantity as Richards pointed out .. child acquirers of a first language are provided with samples of caretaker speech, rough tuned to their present level of understanding, .. and adult acquirers of a second language should be provided with simple codes that facilitate second language comprehension. (Richards, J. 1986133) (4) The Monitor Hypothesis As is mentioned, adult second language learners have two means for internalising the target language. The first is acquisition which is a subconscious and intuitive process of constructing the system of a language.The second means is a conscious learning process in which learners attend to form, persona out rules and are generally aware of their own process. The monitor is an aspect of this second process. It edits and make alterations or corrections as they are consciously perceived. Krashen believes that fluency in second language performance is due to what we have acquired, not what we have learned Adults should do as much acquiring as achievable for the tendency of achieving communicative fluency. Therefore, the monitor should have only a minor billet in the process of gaining communicative competence.Similarly, Krashen suggests three conditions for its use (1) there must be enough time (2) the focus must be on form and not on meaning (3) the learner must know the rule. (5) The Affective Filter Hypothesis The learners emotional state, according to Krashen, is just like an adjustable pick up which freely passes or hinders input necessary to acquisition. In other words, input must be achieved in low- a nxiousness contexts since acquirers with a low affective filter receive more input and interact with confidence. The filter is affective because there are some factors which regulate its strength.These factors are potency, motivation and anxiety state. LANGUAGE encyclopedism LANGUAGE LEARNING The expression language learning includes two clearly distinct, though rarely unders aliked, concepts. One involves receiving information about the language, transforming it into knowledge through intellectual effort and storing it through memorization. The other involves developing the skill of interacting with foreigners to understand and speak their language. The first concept is called language learning, eyepatch the other is referred to as language acquisition. These are separate ideas and we will sharpen that neither is the consequence of the other. The distinction between acquisition and learning is one of the hypotheses (the most important) established by the American Stephen Krashe n in his highly regarded theory of foreign language learning. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Language acquisition refers to the process of natural assimilation, involving intuition and subconscious learning, which is the product of real interactions between people where the learner is an active participant.It is similar to the way children learn their native tongue, a process that produces functional skill in the spoken language without supposed knowledge develops familiarity with the phonetic characteristics of the language as well as its structure and vocabulary, is responsible for oral understanding, the capability for creative communication and for the identification of cultural values. Teaching and learning are viewed as activities that happen in a personal psycho consistent plane.The acquisition approach praises the communicative act and develops self-confidence in the learner. A classic example of language acquisition involves adolescents and vernal adults who live abroad for a year in an exchange program, attaining just native fluency, while knowing little about the language in the majority of cases. They have a good pronunciation without a conception of phonology, dont know what the utter(a) tense is, modal or phrasal verbs are, but they intuitively recognize and know how to use all the structures. LANGUAGE LEARNINGThe concept of language learning is linked to the traditional approach to the study of languages and today is still generally practiced in high schools worldwide. Attention is concentrate on the language in its written form and the objective is for the student to understand the structure and rules of the language through the application of intellect and logical deductive reasoning. The form is of greater importance than communication. Teaching and learning are technical and governed by a formal instructional plan with a predetermined syllabus.One studies the theory in the absence of the practical. One values the correct and represses the incor rect. There is little room for spontaneity. The teacher is an authority figure and the fraternity of the student is predominantly passive. In the teaching of English, for example, one studies the function of the doubtfulness and negative modes, irregular verbs, modals, etcetera The student learns to construct sentences in the perfect tense, but only learns with difficulty when to use it.Its a progressive and cumulative process, normally tied to a preset syllabus that includes memorization of vocabulary and seeks to transmit to the student knowledge about the language, its functioning and grammatical structure with its irregularities, its airs with the students native language, knowledge that one hopes will become the practical skills of understanding and speaking the language. This effort of accumulating knowledge becomes frustrating because of the lack of familiarity with the language. Innumerable graduates with arts dots in English are classic examples of language learning .They often are trained and theoretically able to teach a language that they can communicate in only with extreme difficulty. INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACQUISITION AND LEARNING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS The clear understanding of the differences between acquisition and learning makes it possible to investigate their interrelationships as well as the implications for the teaching of languages. First, we ought to consider that languages, in general, are complex, arbitrary, irregular phenomena, full of ambiguities, in constant random and boisterous evolution.Therefore, the grammatical structure of a language can be too complex and abstract to be categorized and defined by rules. eventide if some partial knowledge of the functioning of the language is reached, it is not substantially transformed into communication skills. What happens in fact is a dependency predominantly opposite to understand the functioning of a language as a system and to understand its irregularities is a function of familiarity with it. Rules and exercises only will make sense when we have already developed solid intuitive delay of the language in its oral form, that is, when we have assimilated it.On the other hand, Krashen admits that the knowledge obtained through formal study (language learning) can serve to monitor speaking. Krashen, however, doesnt specify the language that would be the object of study, but he was probably using the study of Spanish as the basis for his inferences and conclusions because it is the dominant foreign language in the United States, and particularly in the state of California, where Professor Krashen lives and works.Therefore, it is necessary to research the degrees of abnormality and difficulty of the target language and how that affects Krashens theory. THE DEGREE OF PHONETIC foretoken IN THE LANGUAGE AND THE INEFFICIENCY OF LEARNING Its also easy to assess the degree of phonetic signalling of languages and understand the importance that that aspect has . If we analyse and compare Spanish and Portuguese with English, we conclude that there is a significant difference, being English considerably more economical and compact than the Romance languages.This means a greater difficulty in achieving oral proficiency in the target language when sledding from Portuguese or Spanish to English than going the opposite direction. It also means that more time needs to be devoted to the practice of the spoken language (especially listening) and less time fagged on the study of text and grammatical items. Lets-work. (2) (5) Va-mos-tra-ba-lhar. I-like-be-er. (4) (7) Eu-gos-to-de-cer-ve-ja. A-brick-house. (3) (8) U-ma-ca-sa-de-ti-jo-los. Help-me-please. (3) (7) A-ju-de-me-por-fa-vor. How-old-are-you? (4) (7) Quan-tos-a-nos-vo-ce-tem? Where-is-the-bath-room? (5) (8) On-de-fi-ca-o-ba-nhei-ro? I-want-cof-fee-with-milk. (6) (8) Eu-que-ro-ca-fe-com-lei-te. Did-you-watch-that-mo-vie? (6) (10) Vo-ce-as-sis-tiu-a-que-le-fil-me? Third-world-coun-tri es-are- (24) Os-pa-i-ses-do-ter-cei-ro-mun-do- es-tao- fac-ing-e-co-no-mic-pro-blems. (13) en-fren-tan-do-pro-ble-mas-e-co-no-mi-cos. TOTAL 46 silabas 84 silabas 35,3% 64,6% ac-cess / a-ces-so me-thod / me-to-do a-gri-cul-ture / a-gri-cul-tu-ra mu-sic / mu-si-ca air-plane / a-vi-ao na-ture / na-tu-re-za ca-len-dar / ca-len-da-rio o-cean / o-ce-a-no cho-co-late / cho-co-la-te po-li-tics / po-li-ti-ca ci-ty / ci-da-de prin-ter / m-pres-so-ra com-pu-ter / com-pu-ta-dor pro-cess / pro-ces-so cre-a-tive / cri-a-ti-vo pro-ject / pro-je-to de-part-ment / de-par-ta-men-to psy-cho-lo-gy / psi-co-lo-gi-a dif-ference / di-fe-ren-ca pu-blic / pu-bli-co gram-mar / gra-ma-ti-ca qua-li-ty / qua-li-da-de im-por-tant / im-por-tan-te stu-dent / es-tu-dan-te in-tel-li-gent / in-te-li-gen-te te-le-phone / te-le-fo-ne ma-chine / ma-qui-na trans-port / trans-por-te mo-dern / mo-der-no ur-gent / ur-gen-te WORD STRESSINGThe unpredictability of word stressing in English and the absence of any indication of stress from spelling is another element to demonstrate that Krashens arguments acquire even greater strength. There are many other points of contrast between English and Spanish that show the greater degree of irregularity and difficulty of English. The fact is that even with a target language with a large degree of regularity such as Spanish, the contribution of learning will only be effective and durable if the student concurrently develops familiarity and skill with the language in natural environments. (stress on the stretch out syllable) hotel, control, police, improve, exchange, etc. only two-syllable words) (stress on one before the last) video, English, important, united, revolution, etc. (stress on two before the last) excellent, hospital, government, photograph, photographer, etc. stress on three before the last approximately, significantly, intelligible, objectionable, etc. double stress approximation, refrigerator, characteristic , category, necessary, dictionary, fundamental, introductory, etc. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212 pic

Monday, January 28, 2019

Product Life Cycle Essay

The transnational product life cycle (PLC) supposition of swap states that the location of production of certain kinds of products shifts as they go by their life cycles, which consist of four stagesintroduction, emersion, maturity, and decline. There argon some ins and outs when a familiarity is putting a product into production and distribution.You must be able to assess the the impact that it is firing to gain for your club, for instance when blackberry bush makes natural phones they convey to decide what is going to be a blow for consumers from the operating system, he abilities that come with the phone from wifi connectivity, gps, instant messaging, photographic camera capabilities, battery power and numerous other options that the consumer is going to inquire or so in the free-enterprise(a) merchandise of cell phones and cell phones manufactures, and the distribution and prescribedness is going to be the marker of conquest of the product.This is a decision that excogitation teams and designers must deal with when make a product we argon going to look at the alliance Audi a German car manufactures that has had striking success with their automobile and the history s impeccable and with the impact we are going to look at the life cycle in what goes into making this car company, one of the best car noblemans and manufactured vehicles in the worldly concern today. Arrival of the products maturity stage is evident when competitors to pop out to leave the market, gross sales velocity is dramatic ally reduced, and sales volume reaches a steady state.At this point in time, mostly loyal customers buy the product. The Audi A4 has reached a stage of maturity that doesnt have the onslaught of new buyers, the Audi lineup has diversified itself ith select products that offer a to a greater extent institution level product that is better on accelerator pedal, and has more of the monetary impact with new design concepts, with wagons, cou pes, smaller engines that are preserving the manufacturers competitive edge in the automobile industry. The A4 is still an important cog in the Audi machine, but the popularity of the A3 and, latterly, the A1 have eased the burden of expectation quite considerably. mayhap that makes it a little easier for Audi to finesse this latest generation A4 without too untold in the way of compromise. In the wake of the global financial and stinting crisis, the drastic slump on channel arkets worldwide initially act unabated at the start of 2009.Thanks to the many state birth packages for the financial sector and supporting measures by leading central banks, the emplacement on the capital markets then stabilized towards the end of the first quarter. So with the banks of the home country are helping to lend the finances want to invest in Audis financial growth and the supplement of income, generates the opportunity for the company to continue their worldwide success, of exporting one o f the leading German automobiles in the world.Europe has proven to be a happy run ground for Audi and it now has both(prenominal) Mercedes and BMW looking over their shoulders. For the six-month period to a lower place review, total European sales grew 13. 5 per cent to about 382,850 cars with its SUV sales up 23. 5 per cent over the ame period last year. So the overall positioning and product sales are organism generated for the company in their home country and is having great success from the sale from their consummate lineup and with the generated revenue from the public sector, the companys growth financially is leading to the verall success of the car manufacturer.As the year progressed, the increasingly positive business indictors and initial signs of recovery in the global economy fuel sharp gains on major international stock markets. A revival meeting in confidence in stock markets among market players resulted in many indices finishing the year well up. With the publ ic stimulation in the stock of the company they are being rewarded for the great innovation, stability and creativity they have when they are entering foreign markets and their market as well.With the financial clientele the company is oing to grow and with the company growing around %24 from the antecedent year their products pull up stakes continue to have a great international impact. Trading groups, whether bilateral or regional, are an important influence on MNEs strategies. Such groups can define the size of the regional market and the rules infra which companies must operate. Companies in the initial stages of foreign expansion must be aware of the regional economic groups that encompass countries with good manufacturing locations or market opportunities.For instance when you have a company that assesses the needs of their roduct in a foreign market, there is constitute associated with the export of their product and with the agreements that the company has that is defe nd by trade agreements the company willing save monies in the yen run and withstand the impact of their product being sold in other markets, by sometimes having that price reduction of tax, shipping cost when building that relationship, to progress the growth in their company and in both markets of goods exported and sold. iodine of the factors behind the success of the crisscross in Jamaica, Stewart believes, is its affordability despite it being a premier brand. With the brand being sold well in the Jamaican market the bilateral agreement will have success because of the impact that the affordability in this market will have great growth for the company and Jamaicas market as well. In China, mobility is happening top-down.That alliances elite has long been driving full-size cars the new, affluent midriff class is now discovering smaller premium vehicles. In India, mobility is taking mildew in the lower segments the premium markets for larger vehicles is now growing interm inably. With the miscellaneous movement as well the company is growing in many foreign markets with nd aiding the backing of the Audi brand, that has memorializen great impact financially for the company and benefits in operating in these markets, reflect the %24 growth. European companies taking advantage of free trade in the Caribbean Single Market scrimping (CSME) by establishing trade offices in Jamaica or distribution agreements with Jamaican companies with a view to providing your goods or services to the Caribbean Single Market Economy. The free trade agreement offers the company to enter the Jamaican market and gain financial traction from the public, buying their cars at a affordable price, the ilateral agreement helps in terms of sales and distribution in allowing the flexibility, opportunity and growth necessitate for the company and as well as stimulating the Jamaican market. more more people in Jamaica are buying Audi motor vehicles because the brand is cool and i ts drivers have no class pretensions. They generally tend to be professional, well read and discerning. Audi will launch diesel engine options for the A8, A6, and Q5 in the U. S. within the next 24 to 30 months, according to an announcement make today by Johan de Nysschen, he president of Audis the Statesn division. If you are an American you know what it means to fill up at the gas station and know that you wont last that long on the road, until the next time that you are going to need more gas.One approach that Audi has take is going forward with producing electrical and diesel base engines so that the longevity and affordability of these vehicles will extend the product life cycle. It has been show that these to engine styles extend the life of the vehicle and with that the investment of the vehicle is more bang for the dollar to he average consumer that is looking for a prime(a) investment, and not a stockpile of metal that will need to be resold to the dealership when the m iles get towering, and will take a finances will take a sharp turn because of this factor.So with that vehicles in America and worldwide not mattering if youre talking Europe, the Caribbean Islands, China, Canada or Mexico the car maker is looking out for the investor in their vehicles and with the innovation for extended life to their products, base hit and creativity in design, and luxury the auto brand maker will continue the companys rapid growth in all markets they penetrate. Sustainable, superior financial strength is underpinned in particular by continuously optimizing process and structures, realizing reduced costs and ensuring systematic investment management.A high level of self- funding safeguards investments, preserving the ability of Audi AG to innovate and act. The aim is continue financing investment from self generated cash flow. This will be the backbone of the company for progression and distancing itself from competitors by being able to provide luxury, innovat ion, and creativity for the consumer in a locations of the world that the company serves.

Plant layout Essay

instal LAYOUTOutline of ContentsWhat is dress layout?Necessity of steady-going layoutFactors affecting safe layoutPrinciples of dear(p) layoutAdvantages of good layoutSymptoms of poor layoutTypes of layoutWhat is PLANT LAYOUT?Plant layout refers to the arrangement of veridical facilities such(prenominal) as automobiles, equipment, tools, furniture etcetera in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of hearty at the lowest cost and with the least amount of discussion in processing the product from the receipt of raw frame bestow to the deli precise of the final exam product. Plant Layout is a plan of an optimum arrangement of facilities including personnel, operating equipment, retentiveness shoes, material handling equipments and all oppo berth supporting services along with the figure of speech of best structure to contain all these facilities. A good layout is one which allows material rapidly and directly for processing. This reduces transport handling, clerical and other costs down per unit. Space requirement atomic number 18 minimized and it reduces unfounded mold time and idle time of man.Necessity of good industrial plant layoutMinimization of material handlingOptimum utilization of available level space extermination of bottlenecks through balancing of all capacitiesMinimization o take delaysEasy supervision and better manpower resources through excretory product of idle timeElimination of physical efforts required by workersElimination or improvement of objectionable trading operations. E.g. Operations with bad odor, vibrating operations etc.Avoiding industrial accidentsBetter working conditions like light, ventilation, noise go through etc. Optimum utilization of machinery and equipment through proper use.Minimization of cost so that product will be available at cheaper rate to node and delivery in time.Factors affecting facility LayoutNature of plant-Engineering/ transit patienceType of mathematical product-Mass/Flo w, Batch, Job ShopType of Production-Make to Stock/order, std/specPlant Location-Area available, building shell-storeyVolume of Production-Scale of productionTypes of machines and equipment-automationRepairs and maintenance -Policy, schedule on siteArrangement of material handling equipmentFuture expansion planPrinciples of good Layout stripped-down HandlingInterdependenceMinimum investmentIntegration of factors-3MMinimum movement-Distance/FlowContinuous flow-forwardOptimum utilization of available space utmost visibilityMaximum accessibilityMaximum FlexibilitySafety, Security and happinessAdvantages of Good Plant LayoutProper and efficient utilization of available fundament spaceTransportation of work from one engineer to another point without any delay Proper utilization of production capacity.Reduce material handling costsUtilize labor efficientlyReduce accidents return for volume and product tractabilityProvide ease of supervision and controlProvide for employee safety an d healthAllow easy maintenance of machines and plant. remedy productivitySymptoms of Poor LayoutDelays and work stoppage in manufacturing process averse movement of material through the plantCongestion of materials, components and work in progressPoor utilization of spaceHigh material handling and transportation costsExcessive handling by skilled workersProduction cycles and delays in deliveryMental or physical strain on operatorsDifficulties in maintain effective supervision and controlUnderutilization of machines and workersLack of tractableness and difficulty in production planning and controlTypes Of LayoutThere are mainly four parts of plant layout(a) Product or line layout(b) Process or functional layout(c) Fixed position or location layout(d) combine or group layoutProduct or line layoutIn this type of layout the machines and equipments are arranged in one line depending upon the sequence of operations required for the product. It is also called as line layout. The materia l moves to another machine sequentially without any backtracking or deviation i.e. the output of one machine becomes input of the next machine. It requires a very little material handling. It is employ for mass production of standardized products.Advantages of Product layoutLow cost of material handling, overdue to straight and short route and absence ofbacktracking Smooth and around-the-clock operationsContinuous flow of workLesser inventory and work in progressOptimum use of floor space open and effective inspection of work and simplified production control lower berth manufacturing cost per unitDisadvantages of Product layoutHigher initial capital investment in special purpose machine (SPM) High overhead charges dislocation of one machine will disturb the production process.Lesser flexibility of physical resources.Process layoutIn this type of layout the machines of a similar type are arranged together at one place. This type of layout is employ for batch production. It is pr eferred when the product is not standardized and the quantity produced is very small.Advantages of Process layoutLower initial capital investment is required.There is higher(prenominal) degree of machine utilization, as a machine is not obturate for a single productThe overhead costs are relatively lowBreakdown of one machine does not disturb the production process. Supervision can be more effective and specialized.Greater flexibility of resources.Disadvantages of Process layoutMaterial handling costs are high due to backtrackingMore skilled labour is required resulting in higher cost. prepare in progress inventory is high needing greater storage space More frequent inspection is needed which results in costly supervision Combined layoutA combination of process & product layout is cognise as combined layout. Manufacturing concerns where several products are produced in repeated total with no likelihood of continuous production, combined layout isfollowed Fixed position or lo cation layoutFixed position layout involves the movement of manpower and machines to the product which stay stationary. The movement of men and machines is advisable as the cost of moving them would be lesser. This type of layout is preferred where the size of the job is bulky and heavy. Example of such type of layout is locomotives, ships, boilers, generators, wagon building, aircraft manufacturing, etc.Advantages of Fixed position layoutThe investment on layout is very small. The layout is flexible as change in job design and operation sequence can be easily incorporated. Adjustments can be made to meet shortage of materials or absence of workers by changing the sequence of operations.Disadvantages of Fixed position layoutAs the production period universe very long so the capital investment is very high. rattling large space is required for storage of material and equipment near the product. As several operations are often carried out simultaneously so there is possibility of confusion and conflicts among different workgroups.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Non Extraction Treatment In Class Health And Social Care Essay

Anterior and posterior blind drunk bignesss in the eyetooth and sub parts from the almost labial facet of buccal surfaces the eyetooths and the grinders were measured with the aid of digital caliper on the vision theoretical accounts and compargond statistic all(prenominal)y to find whether the dental arches were constricter after declension hinderance.ConsequencesAt the egress of the noise maxillary and mandibular inter endine pretentiousnesss both assemblages did non differ statistically.At the confinesinal of interposition in both the groups anterior and posterior arch bignesss were uniform neglect for the intercanine symmetry which was 0.82 millimetre larger ( P &038 lt 0.05 ) in the filiation group.DecisionThe fall interpellation does non succeed in narrower alveolar consonant consonant arches than non unembellishedction interference in intercanine and intermolar part.Clinical momentThe narrow dental arches atomic number 18 non the anticipate eff ects of line handling so, esthetically elastic consequence of narrow dental arches on sprightly is non a systematic out seminal fluid of extraction interference.Cardinal words Arch breadth Changes, Intercanine and Intermolar breadth, extraction and Non line of descent Treatment.IntroductionThe extraction versus non extraction argument is about every bit onetime(a) as the coming of orthodontias pattern and boulder clay today the quandary exists.Angle1 believed that all 32 dentitions could be accommodated in the jaws, in an ideal halt with the first grinder in consort I occlusion, extractions was bete noire to his ideals, as he believed bone would organize around the dentitions in their place harmonizing to Wolff s law2. even this was criticised by Case who stated that extractions were necessary in order to ameliorate crowding and assistance stableness of treatment.3 provided depending upon clinical scrutiny, radiographic and right diagnosing the extraction determination should be taken. Assorted transverse and upright malrelationships such as crowding, bulge of dentitions be observed in var. I malocclusion which can be handled by extraction or non-extraction encumbrance depending upon infinite disagreement. hitherto the farsighted term stableness in both interventions is surround by a contention.It is good documented fact that accessory in dental arch length and breadth during orthodontic intervention take to the woods to return toward their pre-treatment value after retention.4,5,6,7One of the unfavorable judgment of extraction intervention is that it consequences in narrower arches as compared to non-extraction treatment,8.The popularity of non-extraction intervention are condylar supplanting, contract smilings accompanied by dark corners, dished in profiles with extractions and suboptimal inframaxillary growth.9-16 whatsoever surveies claim that dimension alterations occur in both extraction and non-extraction treatments,17 18It is bel ieved that the pre-treatment values of intercanine and intermolar breadths testify a place of muscular balance so it is suggested that the maintaince of these values provide postretention stableness 19,20.Strang21 and Shapiro concluded that inframaxillary intercanine and intermolar breadth dimensions develop a strong inclination to get worse.In the past many an(prenominal) surveies have been carried out to analyze the effects of extraction and non-extraction intervention entirely the decisions vary a batch which could be because of different intervention techniques, malocclusion types and model size examined during these surveies.So the purpose of present visual modality was to compare dental puckish breadths alterations in Angle Class I malocclusion after extraction of first premolar and non-extraction with a homogeneous survey group in footings of malocclusion and intervention mechanics.The arch breadths were measured in inframaxillary arches because condescending breadths are normally established by inframaxillary arch.Materials and methodsIn this retrospective survey orthodontic survey theoretical accounts of 30 patients who had first premolar extractions and 30 patients toughened without extractions were selected.in the extraction group there were 19 misss and 11 male childs with sightly out age 14.2+-2.9 old ages and in the non-extraction group had 18 male childs and 12 misss with average age 14.3+_2.12 old ages All the patients were treated with preadjusted contraption by assorted teachers in a dental institute.While choice the undermentioned cadences were appliedAll patients had skeletal Class I malocclusionAll patients had generous compliment of teeth upto 2nd grinders without any losing dentition, excess dentition, or congenitally losing dentitions. no(prenominal) of the patients had a adjunctive contraptions such as quad spiral, any operable contraptions, rapid palatine expander during interventionIn the extraction group all patients h ad first premolar extraction as a attribute of orthodontic intervention.With an digital calliper, the breadths of the anterior and posterior parts of the maxillary and inframaxillary alveolar consonant arches were measured in the eyetooth and the molar parts from the most labial facet of the buccal surfaces of those dentitions. The calliper was placed at the scoop estimation of a right angle to the palatine sutura in the maxillary arch and to a line bisecting the incisor section in the inframaxillary arch. The recorded breadths between the grinders were the widest distances between the first or 2nd grinders. The widest portion of the posterior portion of the arch invariably was in the 2nd molar part. Each distance was measured 3 times, and the norm of the 3 values was used as the concluding step.The duplicability of the measuring rods was evaluated by analysing the differences between 10 dual measurings of intercanine and intermolar distances, indiscriminately selected and taken at different times.The mistake of measuring was assessed by Dahlberg s expressionSx =where D is the difference between extra measurings, and N is the figure of dual findings.The mistakes were 0.21 millimeter for inframaxillary intercanine breadth, 0.60 millimeter for inframaxillary intermolar grinder breadth, 0.36 millimeter for maxillary intercanine breadth, and 0.21 millimeter for maxillary intermolar breadth. Means and standard divergences were calculated, and a 2-tailed T trial was used to find statistically historic differences with P &038 lt 0.05.ConsequencesThe inframaxillary intercanine and intermolar breadths did non demo statistical differences at the start of the intervention in both the groups. ( Table 1 )At the terminal of intervention the condescending breadths of both the groups were besides statistically similar except in inframaxillary eyetooth part. ( Table 2 )The mean inframaxillary intercanine dimension was 0.82 millimeter larger in extraction sample than non-e xtraction sample. During intervention the average inframaxillary eyetooth breadth addition was 1.28mm in extraction group and the 0.66mm addition in non-extraction group which was non statistically important. ( Table 3 &038 A 4 )The inframaxillary intermolar breadths for both extraction and non-extraction group were non changed.Table 1. Pretretment inframaxillary intercanine and intermolar arch breadths agencies and SD ( millimeter )Extraction( n=30 )Non-extraction( n=30 )SignificanceIntercanine30.47 A 2.0930.27 A 1.82NitrogenIntermolar59.25 A2.9259.05A 1.67NitrogenNS-Not crucialTable 2. station intervention upper jaw and inframaxillary arch intercanine and intermolar breadths agencies and SD ( millimeter )Extraction( n=30 )Non-extraction( n=30 ) remainderSignificanceMx Intercanine39.12 A 1.9839.84 A 1.810.72NitrogenMd Intercanine31.75 A 1.8430.93 A 1.920.820.01Mx Intemolar61.01 A 1.9860.98 A 2.090.03NitrogenMd Intemolar59.81 A 1.2559.01 A1.980.80NitrogenMx- Maxillary Md- Mandib ular NS-Not SignificantTable 3.Mandibular intercanine and intermolar breadth alterations agencies and SD ( millimeter )Extraction( n=30 )Pre-TreatmentPost- TreatmentDifferenceMd Intercanine30.47A 2.0931.75 A 1.841.28MendeleviumIntermolar59.25 A 2.9259.81 A 1.250.56Md-Mandibular NS-Not Significant.Table 4.Mandibular intercanine and intermolar breadth alterations agencies and SD ( millimeter )Non-extraction( n=30 )Pre-treatmentPost- TreatmentDifferenceMd Intercanine30.27 A 1.8230.93 A1.920.66MendeleviumIntermolar59.05 A 1.6759.01 A 1.980.04Md-Mandibular NS-Not Significant.DiscussionThe two grounds for which the extraction interventions are criticised are that they result in narrow alveolar consonant arches which are unesthetic because of big black trigons in buccal corridors and it is stated that the intercanine and intermolar breadths tend to flow during station keeping period 5,19-22Harmonizing to findings of the present survey the arch breadth in both eyetooth and molar part in the inframaxillary arches did non demo any statistical important results.in fact the arches in extraction group were about 0.82mm wider than non-extraction group. Although these findings might non fulfill some writers who support non-extraction interventions. The consequences of this survey can be compared with surveies on station intervention long term stableness in which inframaxillary incisor stableness was acceptable. The inframaxillary intercanine breadth increase 1.07mm in an extraction sample23 in contrast in non-extraction topics where the addition in inframaxillary intercanine dimension was less than 1mm in Class I 24,25 and Class II patients..In boundary line instances the long term addition in intrecanine breadth was 1mm in extraction interventions and 0.5mm in non-extraction 26 treatments.Luppanapornlarp and Johnston rig that inframaxillary intercanine breadth of extraction topics was greater at all phases of intervention in extraction instances than in non-extraction instances which indicate that extraction of 4 first bicuspids does non bespeak contract of arches.27BeGole et Al 28 comprise 1.58mm addition in extraction sample as compared to 0.95mm in non-extraction sample.Udhe et al 29 found a larger addition in extraction group than in non-extraction group.Gianelly 5 studied inter arch alterations of extraction and non-extraction groups and found that the alterations in maxillary and inframaxillary arch breadths indicated that extraction intervention does non observe in narrower arches than non-extraction groups. This determination is in conformity with the present study.On the footing of constructs documented in the literature13,30,31 1 might anticipate narrower arches after extraction.However Kim and Gianelly suggested that the breadths of the both the arches were 1-2mm larger when compared with the condescending breadths of non-extraction group at a standardized arch depth.The intermolar breadths of both the groups were same after interve ntion this determination supports the position of Johnson and smith32. Who stated that arch breadth at any peculiar location is maintained or pretty increased after extraction.Weinberg and sadowsky33 found important addition in inframaxillary intercanine and intermolar breadth in class1 malocclusion treated non-extraction and stated that the enlargement of buccal sections in the inframaxillary arches helped in declaration of Class I herding. However 16 out of 30 patients had some sort of palatal expander which might continue contributed to inframaxillary enlargement In the present survey no interventions were disposed(p) for enlargement.To some research workers maxillary arch breadth is deciding of smile esthetics,34, the maxillary arch breadths in extraction and non-extraction groups were same so it can be expected that the intervention effects in maxillary arches leave behind be the same, and there will be no difference in esthetic tonss in both the groups.In fact the intercan ine breadths in extraction groups were wider than non-extraction group. However the hereafter surveies in the maxillary arches in assorted malocclusion categorizations with assorted intervention mechanics will be productive.It is stated that enlargement more than 1-1.5mm in intercanine enlargement is unstable so appliances designed to increase arch width more than this were non used in the present survey.On the footing of findings of the present survey it can be said that extraction instances do non ensue in narrow dental arches than non-extraction instances and thereby do non hold compromising consequence on smiling esthetics and stableness of orthodontic intervention. However future surveies with assorted malocclusion groups, intervention mechanics, larger sample size and long term alterations in arch dimensions will be utile.DecisionsThe present survey findings indicate that the premolar extractions to alleviate crowding does non ensue in narrowing of dental arches in extraction interventions when compared to non-extraction interventions. A proper intervention schedule and intervention mechanics in accurately diagnosed instance can ensue in intervention success regardless of extraction or non-extraction intervention.Clinical significanceThe narrow dental arches are non the expected effects of extraction intervention so, esthetically compromising consequence of narrow dental arches on smiling is non a systematic out semen of extraction intervention.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Family and kinship terms Essay

Based on the interviews I performed for this exercise, I now have a broader view of the term family. For this exercise, I interviewed four-spot individuals that were of Asian origin, specifi mobilizey Filipino, or individuals originating from the Filipinos. Based on my research and reprimand with my interviewed subjects, the Philippines is such a small country in the South eastern but these Filipinos can be found living all slightly the world. To an anthropologist, the term family simply pertains to the biological structure composed of two p arnts and at least one child.This structural unit is what has long been accepted in the Western world as the basic unit in society. However, there atomic number 18 quite a few modifications to Asians and more specifically, to individuals originating from the Philippines. In Philippine culture, the terms family and extended family can be employ interchangeably, because their culture is a lot associated with a home that is inhabited by a m arried couple with children, as well as the grandparents and relatives-in-law.In the Western world, the extended family is rarely observed in one household and would only be necessity in special circumstances such is health conditions that affect the dominion functioning of a family. In the Philippine tradition, the term family simply delegacy the entire family as well as all the relatives that could possibly arrest into the house and live for even an extended period of time. It has been explained to me that such closely knit family ties have been adapted by Filipinos from the Chinese travelers in the early centuries (Joaquin, 1988). hence in the household, one bedroom can be inhabited by two girls that are not sisters but actually cousins. The term kinship, on the other hand, technically means the biological connection of an individual such as the kinship of the father or the kinship of the mother of a family. In the Asian point of view, kinship can mean whatsoever individu al that is connect to any member of the family. This not only includes those of with a biological connection, but also those individuals that have been related through marriage, or the in-laws.It is frankincense interesting to see how different cultures perceive the terms family and kinship. What amazes me is that the Filipinos that I interviewed have such a great attachment to the idea of family, that they call other elder non-related Filipino friends Uncle or Aunt. It has been explained to me that such interlingual rendition of these greetings are a form of respect to these elder individuals, even if they are not really biologically related.It can thus look manage one Filipino can have a thousand uncles and some other thousand aunts because all of them are addressed with the same term that is used to address their biological aunt or uncle. Another interesting thoughtfulness that I collected from my interview is that Filipinos tend to consider a non-biologically related indivi dual as family if they have been in touch or in communication with that person for at least a couple of eld and that they would even attempt to help these individuals out to the best of their abilities, even go the last of their food to such friend.These individuals have big hearts and are more than willing to help out any individual who call for support. When I asked how they would consider a company of unrelated individuals that have lived unitedly in a particular place, they responded that they consider this group as a family, too, and not a residence group.The members of this residence group are thus considered as brothers and sisters, depending simply on the age of each member of the group, or if one individual is elderly, then that individual will be called and considered as the groups father or mother and that the youngest member of the group will be considered and called the groups baby. Reference Joaquin, N. 1988. Culture and record Occasional notes on the process of Philippine becoming. Solar Publishing, Metro Manila.

Friday, January 25, 2019

Chapter 5 and 6 Apush Outline

Chapter 5 * Thirteen original colonies is mis lead story because Britain ruled 32 colonies in trades union the States by 1775 * Included Canada, the Floridas, and various Caribbean is fine-tunes * unaccompanied long dozen un hideled the standard of rising A few of the nonrebels (Canada, Jamaica, etc) were biggishr, wealthier, or more than populous than some(prenominal)(prenominal)(a) of the revolting thirteen * Some British colonies had fall upon for their independence while some(prenominal) others did non/ due to the distinctive social, economic, and political structures of the thirteen Atlantic seaboard colonies and as tumefy as in the halting gradual show in the the Statesn way of life Conquest by the provenience * Among distinguishing characteristics of rebellious settlements lusty universe of discourse growth * Colonists doubled their numbers each 25 years atomic number 63ans * Dr.Samuel Johnson Multiplying uniform rattlesnakes * withal were youthful aver hop on age was 16 * In 1775, the most populous colonies were Virginia, Massachusetts, dada, North Carolina, and Maryland. * Only quaternion communities could be called cities front-year Philadelphia (including suburbs), impudently York, Boston, Charleston * 90% of the the great unwashed lived in rural areas A Mingling of the Races * Colonial the States had been a resolve pot since the outset race was slope in stock and linguistic process, un slight mottled with numerous foreign groups * Germans * 1775 about 6% of total population Fleeing unearthly persecution, economic oppression, and ravages of war * Mostly settled in dad in the early 1700s * Added to spiritual diversity belonged to different Protestant sects, in the beginning Lutheran * Erroneously kn give as the Pennsylvania Dutch and do up 1/3 of colonys population * go into Penns backcountry * Their splendid stone barns give evidence of industriousness and successfulness * Clung to their German culture and language * Scots-Irish * 7% of population in 1775 * non Irish at all moreover turbulent Scots Lowlanders Had been transported oer a period of period to Northern Ireland did not prosper * Irish Catholics scorned Scottish Presbyterian and resended the intrusion * Economic life of Scots-Irish was hampered, oddly when face g overnment put burdensome restrictions on their production of woolens and linens * atrial auriclely 1700s tens of thousands of Scots- Irish came to the States, broadly speaking to tolerant and deep-soiled Pennsylvania * Best land was al sound outy interpreted by Germans and Quakers pushed out into the frontier * Illegally hardly defiantly squatted on unoccupied lands and quarreled with Indian and white owners * Superior frontiersmen with ready violence for Indians * fancy that they kept Sabbath and all else they could get their hands on * They hated British government (or apparently whatsoever other government) who had once uprooted and still lorded over them * Led the armed march of the Paxton Boys on Philadelphia, protesting the Quakers oligarchys lenient policy towards Indians * Also led Regulator movement in North Carolina against eastern domination of the colonys affairs * umpteen of these hotheads (ex Andrew Jackson) thus fartually joined the the Statesn revolutionists * 5% of multicolored colonial population included French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swish, and Scots Highlanders felt little loyalty to British crown * Largest non-English group Africans Thirteen colonies had most mixed population * reciprocal ohm 90% of break ones backs * sassy England Puritans least ethnic diversity * midsection Colonies (especially Penns Woods) received most of later white immigrants and had astonishing human body * This variety laid the foundations for the diverse multicultural American identity * Whites mixed with other whites, as were Africans from break ones back avocation African Americans * Polyglot Native American c ommunities emerged blurred tribal identity boundaries The Structure of Colonial Society * Contrasted to EuropeAmerican was a land of equality and opportunity except for the slaves * No titled nobility or pauperized underclass Most white Americans and some surplus calamitouss were scurvy farmers * Cities teensy class of skilled artisans, shopkeepers, tradespeople, and unskilled causative laborers * Most astonishing could go from rags to riches for an ambitious colonist, rare in England * Contrast with 17th hundred America colonial society on the eve of transformation began to show signs of stratification/ barriers to mobility raised worries about Europeanization of America * Gods of war contri saveed to these developments * Armed conflicts of the 1690s and early 1700s enriched a number of merchant princes in the bare-assed England and middle colonies laid foundations of their fortunes with profits do as armed forces suppliers made bullion imported fancy clothes and ate with English china, etc * Prominent people came to be seated in churches/ schools according to array * state of war plague created class of widows and orphans became dependent on charity * Philadelphia and NY reincons handy almshouses However, still smaller number of poor in America than England (1/3 of population in E) * In clean England country stead descendent of original settlers face more problems than descendents supply of unclaimed soil grew smaller and families crowingr existent landholdings were repeatedly subdivided * Average farm size drastically shrank and younger kids were forced to work as wage laborers or seek virgin tracts of land beyond Alleghenies * South office of great planters were bolstered by disproportionate monomania of slaves * Riches created by growing slave population in eighteenth century were not notwithstandingly distri excepted among whites- wealth was concentrated in astronomicst slave owners widened gap between rich and poor whites who would po rtably become tenant farmers * In all the colonies the ranks of the lower classes were further swelled by the continuing burgeon forth of indentured servants, galore(postnominal) of whom were eventually very successful * more paupers and convicts were deported to the Americas, many because of the strict penal code in England with over 200 dandy crimesnot fans of king * Lowest blacks they could not even dream of climb the social ladder * People eared black rebellion SC legislature even tried to restrict/ halt their importation * To reliever cheap labor, especially in sugar of westside Indies, British regime vetoed these attempts colonists thought this veto was callous even though NE slave traders also very much benefited from this * Cruel complexity of issue (think doubting Thomas Jefferson) Clerics, Physicians, and Jurists * Christian ministry was most celebrateed employment * Most physicians were poorly learn and not highly esteemed * The first medical school came in 176 5 * Epidemics were a constant nightmare, especially smallpox a crude division of inoculation was introduced in 1721 despite objections by many physicians and clergy * Powdered dried-out toad was a favorite prescription for smallpox. Diphtheria was also a killer, especially of young people. Grim reminder of one epidemic and the taking of their worship may stick out helped to prepare colonists in their hearts and minds for the sacred revitalization that was soon to sweep them up * At first the law profession was not favorably regarded lawyers were regarded as noisy or troublemakers, drunkards or house of prostitution owners sometimes parties defended themselves in court Workaday America * Agriculture was the leading industryinvolved about 90% of the people * Tobacco continued to be staple crop for Maryland and VA (wheat also spread through and through with(predicate) Chesapeake in tobacco ruined soil regions) * robust middle (bread) colonies with lots of grain NY was trade a lot of flour a year A hooking * This was really effective, and America was overall the high of standards of living lived by the volume of others in history up to that time * Fishing, though below agriculture, was reward and play alongd in all American colonies simply study(ip) industry in unused England generated shipbuilding and served as a babys room for the seamen * Bustling commerce, coastwise and overseas enriched all the colonies especially refreshful England, NY, and Pennsylvania * Commercial ventures and land speculation re set any get-rich-quick schemes and became the surest avenues to speedy wealth * northern seamen were famous not only as skilled mariners tho also as ightfisted traders * Triangular trade was infamously profitable solely small in relation to total colonial commerce * Manufacturing in the colonies was only tributary importance but included rum, genus Castor hats, iron, household manufacturing (spinning and weaving) * Strong-back laborers a nd skilled craftspeople were scarcely and highly prized * Lumbering was the most important single manufacturing activity first chiefly in New England, but then spread elsewhere in the colonies * Colonial naval stores (tar, pitch, rosin, turpentine) were highly valued because British treasured to fain and retain a mastery of the seas * London offered generous bounties to stimulate production of these items * Towering trees were engageed for gallant masts there were restriction placed on them this shackle on free enterprise caused considerable bristliness * By the 18th century Americans held an important flank of the thriving Atlantic economy, but strains appeared in this network as early as the 1730s * spry breeding Americans demanded more and more British products-yet the slow growing British population early reached the saturation point for absorbing imports from America * This trade imbalance prompted the Americans to sell their goods to foreign, non-British markets to get m oney to pay for British products * By the eve of the Revolution, the bulk of Chesapeake tobacco was in France and other European countries, btw it passed through British re-exporters * Most important was trade with West Indies, especially in French islands West Indian purchases of North American timber and foodstuffs provided hard cash for colonists to purchase British goods * Due to pressure from British West Indian planters, Parliament passed the Molasses Act aim was to stop trade with French West Indies * American merchants respond by bribing, smuggling, etc Americans revolting, not submitting providepower and Sailpower All large but sparsely populated pioneer communities were cursed with oppressive problems of menu, including America with its scarceness of money and worker * Snot until 1700s did roads connect major cities, but they were still deficient * Roads were poor (dust in summertime and mud in winter) and stagecoach travelers faced problems like rickety bridge and runa way horses * Bad roads heavy reliance on waterways populations agglomerated along banks or rivers slow and undependable but cheap and pleasant * Taverns sprang up along routes of travel as well as in cities all social classes mingled tavern was another cradle of democracy * Also important in crystallizing public opinion and hotbeds of agitation as Revolution continued * An intercolonial postal system was established by the mid-1700s supreme Denominations Two establish- tax supported- churches in 1775 Anglican and congregational * However, large part of population did not worship in any church, even in colonies that maintained established religion minority belonged to the churches * Church of England (Anglican) was positive faith in Georgia, the Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, and part of NY served as major prop of august authority * However, it clung to a faith that was less fierce and more terrestrial than religion of Puritanical New England shorter sermons, less scorned amus ements, etc * The College of William and Mary was founded in 1693 to train a better class of clerics for the Anglican Church * Congregational Church had grown out of Puritan Church and was influential officially established in all New England colonies except independent-minded Rhode Island * Presbyterianism, close to Congregational, was never made official in any of the colonies * These two combined with rebellion during early rumblings against British crown * Anglican clergy supported king but were handicapped by not having a resident bishop, whose presence would have been convenient for the ordination of young ministers people had to travel to England to be ordained and many non- Anglicans opposed the idea of creating an American bishopric because it would tighten majestic reins * Religious tolerationhad made tremendous strides in America. There were fewer Catholics in America hence anti-Catholic laws were less wicked and less stringently enforced. In general, people could wor ship or not worship as they pleased. The heavy(p) Awakening * In all colonial churches, religion was less fervid in early 18th century than century before, when colonies were first plant * Puritan churches especially sagged under two burdens elaborate theological doctrines and their compromising efforts to liberalize membership requirements * Liberal ideas began to challenge old time religion Puritan predestination was questioned a lot, especially bit Arminians, who preached that free will determined eternal fate, not divine decree a few churches grudgingly said that phantasmal conversion was not necessity for church membership (they had felt pressured) * These twin trends toward clerical smartism and lay liberalism sucked spiritual vitality from many denominations set stage for rousing phantasmal revival, the Great Awakening * Great Awakening first started in Northampton, Massachusetts by Jonathon Edwards, an intellectual pastor he proclaimed that through faith in God,notthro ugh doing good works, could one attain eternal salvation.He had an alive-style of preaching Sinners in arrive ats of * George Whitefieldgave America a different kind of evangelical type of preaching (had an incredible voice) * His message even had Edwards to tears and Franklin to go off pockets countless sinners expressed conversion * Theold lights, orthodox clergymen, were skeptical of the late ways (sensational and theatrical) of preaching * New light ministers defended the Awakening for its role in revitalizing American religion * Congregationalists and Presbyterians were split over this issue * Many believers in the religious conversion went to the Baptists and other sects more prepared for emotion in religion * Awakening had many lasting effects had an idiom on direct, emotive spirituality and seriously undermined the older clergy, whose authority had been derived from their gentility and erudition * The schisms it set off in many denominations greatly increase the numbe rs and competitiveness of American churches encouraged a wave of missional work among Indians and even black slaves, many of whom also attended the caboodle open-air revival led to founding of new light centers of higher learning (Princeton, Dartmouth, Rutgers, Brown) * Most significant Great Awakening was the first free mass movement of the American people broke down sectional boundaries/ denominational liens contributed to growing sense that Americans were a single people, united by common history and shared experience Schools and Colleges * English idea was that commandment was a blessing reserved for the aristocratic few, not for unwashed many, leadership not citizenship, males only * Colonists slowly and painfully broke out of these superannuated restrictions * Puritan New England was more interested in education than any other section.Dominated by the Congregational Church, it stressed the indispensability for Bible variation by the individual worshiper * Primary goal of clergy good Christians, not good citizens * Education for boys flourished most from the outset in News England * This thickly populated region had impressive number of graduates from English universities, especially Cambridge, the intellectual center of Englands Puritanism * New England also established primary and unoriginal schools * Adequate elementary schools also put in arrive atation in the averse(p) scholars of middle and southern colonies (some tax supported and others in camera operated) * South mostly wealthy families with private tutors General atmosphere of colonial schools and colleges were grim and risque most emphasis was placed on religion and classical language of Latin and Greek, not experiments, reason, or independent thinking * There was severe discipline, even for children, and even indentured-servant teachers could be whipped for failures as workers * College education was regarded (at least in new England) extremely important because Churches would w ither if new crops of ministers were not trained to lead spiritual flocks * Many wealthy families, especially in South, sent their boys abroad to British institutions * For convenience and economy, 9 local colleges were established during the colonial era small student enrollments (200 boys at most), poor education, curriculum fill up with theology and dead languages * By 1750 distinct trend towards more red-brick subjects * Significant contribution made by Ben Franklin, who played a major role in the launching of UPenn, the first American college free from denominational control A Provincial Culture Colonial Americans were still in thrall to European tastes, especially British * The simplicity of pioneering life had not yet bred many patrons of arts * John Trumbull aspiring painter of computerized tomography who was discouraged by his fathers remark that Connecticut was not Athens Trumbull, like most others, was forced to travel to London to pursue his ambitions * Charles Wilson Peale (GW portraits), Benjamin West, John Singleton Copley became famous painters but also had to go to England to round their training only aboard could they find subjects who had leisure to sit for their portraits and had the money to handsomely pay * These people were Loyalists and were buried in London (sometimes) * architecture was imported from old mankind and modified for peculiar climatic and religious conditions of the New World * Log cabin Sweden The red-bricked Georgian style was introduced in 1720 Williamsburg, Virginia * Colonial literature was generally undistinguished, like art, for many of the same reasons * Phyllis Wheatley black poet, taken from slave to England, poetry password similar to Pope * BFrank autobiography, but mostly Poor Richards Almanac- shaped America only book that beat it was the Bible * Science was also making progress not as many superstitions * BFrank only first rank scientist produced in the American colonies * Spectacular but dangerous ex periments kite proved lightning was a form of electricity * Bifocals, Franklin stove, lighting rod condemned by some clergymen presuming God broach Presses Americans were generally too poor to buy books and too busy to read them * There were some private libraries, especially with Byrd family and the clergy * BFrank established the first privately supported circulating library in America in Philadelphia * By 1776 there were about 50 public libraries and collections supported by subscription * Hand operated printing presses brought out pamphlets, journals, leaflets, etc * 40 colonial newspapers by the time of the Revolution * They were mostly made of somber essays with news that was delayed to be printed but colonists were extremely interested to hear about * Newspapers were powerful source of air out colonial grievances and rallying opposition to British control * A noted legal case in 1734-1735 involvedJohn Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer. He was charged with printing things t hat assailed the corrupt royal regulator of New York (libel). diethylstilbestrolpite the ambitions of the royal chief justice, the jury voted him not guilty to the confusion of the judge and many people. This paved the way for freedom of the press. The Great bouncy of Politics * The thirteen colonial governments took a variety of forms * Eight had royal regulators found by the king * Three- Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware- were under proprietors who themselves chose the governors * Two- Connecticut and Rhode Island- take their own governors under self-governing characters * Nearly every colony used a two house legislative body. The upper house, or council, was appointed by the crown in the royal colonies and the proprietor in the proprietary colonies.It was elect by voters in the self-governing colonies * The lower house, as the popular branch, was elected by the people- those who owned enough property to be qualified as voters * Backcountry was underrepresented and they h ated the colonial cliques almost as much as munificent authority * Legislatress (direct representation) voted such taxes as they deemed necessary for the expenses of the colonial government * This self-taxation through representation was a precious privilege Americans prized above all else * Governors appointed by king were generally bale men, sometimes outstanding figures, but some were incompetent/ corrupt and just badly in need of jobs * Worst of this group was impoverished Lord Cornbury made governor of New York and New Jersey in 1702. He was a drunkard, a spendthrift, and a bad person. Even the best appointees had troubles with colonial legislatures because the royal governor bodied a bothersome transatlantic authority 3000 miles away * Ways colonial assemblies asserted their authority and independence employed the trick of withholding governors salary until he yielded to their wishes (since he was normally in need of money) * The London government was guilty of poor court ( left colonial governor to the mercy of the legislature) * They sh0oudl have arranged for his independent pay instead of from these hassle sources bickering is persistent spirit of revolt * Local level administration also varied * County government remained the rule in South New England town meeting government predominated- direct democracy because of open interchange/ open voting * Religious/ property qualifications required for voting/ even stiffer qualifications for office holding * Privileged upper-class wouldnt grant decently to everyone * ? adult white males, but gaining the property wasnt that hard so there were a lot of opportunities to become voters * Not many legal actually voted left it up to their better leaders (actually corrupt losers) * Middle colonies modification of the two * 1775 not yet a true democracy, but much more democratic than anything in Europe/ Britain * There some democratic ideas planted seeds for later years Colonial Folkways Life in colonies was dr ab and tedious (labor was heavy and constant) * Americans had most bountiful diet, food was plentiful, but coarse and monotonous diet * Americans had/ ate more meat than anyone in the Old World * Obviously they didnt have heat in Churches, poorly heated homes with inefficient fireplaces, no running water, plumbing or bathtubs, not much garbage disposal * Candles/ whale-oil lamps used for illumination * fun * Pursued when time/ custom permitted * Militia periodically assembled for musters (with lots of coquette and enjoyment involved) * Several days of drilling- musters * North winter sports * South cards. Horse racing, cockfighting, and fox hunts * Non-puritanical south dancing * GW could ride well and dance well * Lotteries were approved even by clergy * Stage plays- popular for south but frowned upon by Quakers/ Puritans * New England clergy saw plays as immoral they preferred religious lectures * Holidays * Celebrated everywhere in the American colonies New England frowned upon Christmas * Thanks crowing- widespread giving thanks to God * By mid-18th century, Britains several North American colonies revealed some striking similarities * Basically English in language and custom, Protestant in religion * Other people and faiths colonies gave some degree of ethic/ religious toleration * Lots of opportunities for social mobility * All possessed some measure of self-government (but not complete democracy) * Improving communication and transportation * Self- rule was most important similarity * All separated by entire ocean from Britain led to struggle to unite for independence Chapter 6 As the 17th was ending, contest began for mastery of North American celibate involving 3 Old Worlds (Britain, France, and Spain) and involved Native Americans as well * 1688- 1763 4 bitter wars in Europe (world wars) * Fought for control in Europe and New World and fought in both places * Americans could not stay out of it good thing because one of the wars (Seven Years conte nd aka French and Indian War by America) set the stage for Americas independence France Finds a Foothold in Canada * Like England and Holland, France was a latecomer in New World real estate, basically for same reasons had foreign wars in 1500s and domestic discord (clashes between Roman Catholics and Protestant Huguenots) * St. Bartholomews Day lots of people killed * In 1598, theEdict of Nanteswas issued by the crown of France.It granted limited religious freedom to French Protestants, and stopped religious wars between the Protestants and Catholics new century France became mightiest and most feared in Europe, led by brilliant leaders and cock-a-hoop King Louis XIV * Reigned for less than 2 years surrounded by glittering court and mistresses * Also took deep interest in colonies * In1608, France establishedQuebec (by St. Lawrence River). The leading figure wasSamuel de Champlain,an intrepid soldier and explorer whose power and leadership earned him the title Father of New Franc e. * Champlain entered into friendly relations with the nearby Huron Indians and joined them in battles against their foes (Iroquois of upper NY area) * Two fights with them and Iroquois were dead terrified France earned permanent enmity with Iroquois * Stopped French from getting into Ohio vale Ravaged French settlements/ served as British allies * The government of New France (Canada) was under direct control of the king after muchos companies had failed royal almost completely autocratic regimedid not elect any congresswoman assemblies or have right to trial by jury like those in English colonies * Population in Catholic New France grew lethargically (Landowning French peasants didnt want to move and Protestant Huguenots could not for religious reasons) * French government preferred Caribbean islands (sugar and rum) over cold wintery Canada New France Sets Out * New Frances one valuable resource beaver fashion hats (warm and opulent) * French fur trappers couriers de bois (runn ers of the woods) who ranged over woods/ waterways of North America for beaver * Also runners of risks * Two-fisted drinkers, free spenders, free livers and lovers * Named a lot (Baton Rouge, Des Moines, etc) * French voyageurs recruited Indians into fur business * Fur trade had drawbacks Indians recruited got the white diseases and hated their alcohol * Slaughtering mass beavers violated some NA religious beliefs and finished some Indians way of life * French and Indian trappers traveled atrocious distances almost extinguished beaver population, causing bad ecological monetary value * French Catholic missionaries, especially Jesuits, labored with much enthusiasm to permute the Indians to Christianity and to save them from the fur trappers * Some were killed by Indians for doing so * Some made converts, but also had vital roles as explorers and geographers * Others sought not souls nor fur but empire * Antoine Cadillac- founded Detroit in1701to thwart English settlers pushing in to the Ohio vale * Robert de La Salle- explored the Mississippi and Gulf basin, naming it Louisiana in honor of king done to check Spanish penetration into the gulf * imagine of empire and brought colonizing ships, but ended up killed by mutiny * In order to ontinue their efforts to block the Spanish on the Gulf of Mexico, the French planted several fortified posts in Mississippi and Louisiana most important-New Orleansin1718. * This outpost also rapped fur trade * Fertile Illinois had French forts established there and became Frances garden empire of North America because much grain was produced there The Clash of Empires * The earliest battles among European power for control of North America, known to British colonists asKing Williams War (1689-1697)andQueen Annes War (1702-1713), pitted British colonists against the French couriers de bois with both sides recruiting any possible Indian allies. Primitive guerilla warfare neither side thought America was so important to need a la rge detachments of troops * Most of the battles were between the British colonists, the French, and the French ally Spain. * Spain probed from its Florida subaltern at SC settlements, and French Indian allies ravaged British colonial frontiers * British failed with Quebec and Montreal but victories when temporarily seized Port Royal in Acadia (present day Nova Scotia) * The wars ended in1713with peace terms signed atUtrecht proved how badly beaten France and Spain were terribly beaten and Britain received French-populated Acadia and Newfoundland and Hudson Bay. The British also won limited trading rights in Spanish America later involved friction over smuggling War of Jenkins Ear broke out between British and Spanish in Caribbean ocean and Georgia with James Oglethorpe fought against Spanish foe to a standstill * This small scuffle merged with big War of Austrian Succession in Europe (King Georges War) * France allied with Spain * New Englanders invaded New France with British pal pitate and luck * The War of Jenkinss Ear started in1739between the British and Spaniards. This small battle became a war and became known asKing Georges War in America. It ended in1748with a treaty that hand Louisbourg back to France, enraging the victorious New Englanders, and France still clung to vast holdings in North America

Wednesday, January 23, 2019

Disney Cruise Case Study

marting Strategy Development Proposal Disney sheet key out Dave Ro henceberg & international ampere Kang Liu Marketing in Tourism and Hospitality Dr. Ceridwyn pansy Temple University School of Tourism and Hospitality Management Structure executive digest .. 2 1. 0 Introduction . 2 2. 0 Situational digest 2 2. 1 Internal 2 2. 1. 1 Organization abstract . 3 2. 1. 2 study epitome 3 2. 1. 3 level Market out kris6 2. 2 External 6 2. . 1 Porters Five Forces 6 2. 2. 2 PEST Analysis 7 2. 2. 3 Competitor Analysis 9 2. 3 Summary 10 3. 0 Problem/opportunity Identification.. 11 4. 0 Marketing Strategy11 4. 1 Product/ receipts system12 4. 2 Distri exactlyion dodging.. 12 4. 3 Communication out by- thread 13 5. 0 Conclusion.. 13 Reference list14 auxiliaryes .. 6 Executive Summary Disney sail stemma has been running since 1988 and was favored in the past 24 ample time. In this report, the situation compendium of the partner delight bequeath be stomachd separately into inte rnal epitome, which includes g overnance analysis, SWOT analysis, and intent commercialise analysis, and orthogonal situation, which includes Porters five forces, PESTE analysis, and contender analysis. By viewing the situation analysis, it is clear that Disney cig bettevas Line has a wrong on the scale of business and a strong advantage on its snitch and the inscription of its clients. final but not least, three tradeing strategies, which be merchandise/service system, distribution scheme, and discourse strategy for next 12 schedule months look at been developed at the end of the project in gild to give the direction to the partnerships yearly commercializeing think in 2013. 1. 0 Introduction Disney sheet Line was founded in 1988 with its front ship, Disney Dream, follow by Disney Wonder in the next summer. After enroll the keepvas descent intentness for decades, Disney journey Line now became matchless of the most famous journey line companies in t he existence. Now, Disney has four ships on line and serves triggerers to several destinations around the world.In 2012, it is estimated Disney stopvas Lines volition make near 3% sh ar of the worldwide canvass commercialize place (2012 World good Market Sh be, 2011). Disney sail Line has sight itself as a gallery in the cruise line assiduity, providing a place as Disney substructure get, where families female genital organ spend their time together and every member sack up have fun. 2. 0 Situational Analysis The purpose of this situational analysis is to understand Disney cruise Lines external and internal situation, including the customer, the market environment, and the unanimouss own capabilities.The situational analysis will forecast current and future motilitys in the dynamic environment in which the Disney sheet Line memorial tablet operates. 2. 1 Internal The conduction of the internal analysis will exhibit how the presidential term itself operat es. This internal analysis will include last-making deep down Disney sheet Line, promotional programs, the image of the memorial tablet, and an assessment of the key internal strengths and weaknesses of the establishment. 2. 1. 1 Organization Analysis Disney canvass Line is matchless of the mod businesses from the Walt Disney friendship ther Disney companies are in the film patience (1928) and the Disney theme parks (1955). The first ship, Disney Magic was launched in 1998 and then Disney Wonder joined the fleet in 1999, the next year. Those were the single two ships that the Disney Company had for the last 13 years until Disney Dream was launched in 2011. Disney sail Line has now ceremonious itself as a leader in the cruise exertion, providing a setting where families can reconnect, adults can load and kids can immerse themselves in a world scarce Disney can seduce (Disney cruise Line, 2012).Disney sail Line continues to expand its blueprint for family cruising wi th its fourthly ship, Disney Fantasy, scheduled to make its maiden voyage in 2012 (Disney journey Line). 2. 1. 2 SWOT Analysis In coif to assemble customer take and have the vastest opportunity to reach its full voltage, the Disney cruise fellowship must understand its external and internal situation, including its customer, the market environment, and the firms own capabilities. In doing so, a SWOT analysis was conducted in drift to point out the companionships internal strengths and weaknesses, as intimately as external opportunities and holy terrors. extension A shows the SWOT analysis conducted for Disney Cruise Lines. In conducting a SWOT analysis some(prenominal) trends in within the organization as well as in the surrounding environment were identified. With our own analysis, we found key strengths in the organization essential to the success of Disney Cruise Lines. Disney Cruise lines is owned and operated by the largest media and entertainment fellowship in t he world (Cruz, 2011). This strength reserves customers with a yield and service marked by the worthiness of the Walt Disney organization.Also you can read aboutHistory of the Culinary Arts.Disney Cruise Lines currently employs over 150,000 good deal with an average turnover rate of octet years. This shows us that employees are satisfied with their employer, and will in return portray this to the customers. Disney Cruise Lines are continuing to introduce brisk innovative products to the market. Disneys new first of its kind 4,000 passenger ship b take a hops with her horizontal more than features and a wave of innovation (Young, 2011). This ship is the first cruise vessel to be equipped with an onboard water rollercoaster.Disneys Fantasy, which will prime(a) in April, will alike carry new ground faulting features merely available from Disney companies. Along with the introduction of two new ships, Disney Cruise Lines are expanding their ports to three new cities. bleak to 2012, Disney Cruise Lines will be sailing from clean York City, Seattle, and Galveston, Texas (Weissman, 2011). The auxiliary of these new ports will digest customers from eventide wider geographical regions to enjoy the rummy Disney go out on the sea. done conducting the SWOT analysis a human action of weaknesses were in any case able to be identified.A major(ip) trend in customers perception shows that the Disney name notwithstanding draw ins to familys want a pass (Mena, 2011). There is currently short(p) market or promotion being conducted in ensnare to conjure up to different groups of customers. It is commonly perceived that Disney only generates family fun, and does not interest customers seeking a more multi-dimensional obtain (Archer, 2011). Also, the Disney Cruise Lines occupy nothing but excellence from their employees era on board the ship. However, it will take a vast amount of resources to continually train the staff in methodicalness to upkee p the superior service.This will cost the organization a great amount of resources on an ongoing basis in night club to right train all of the staff. Superior service, stock-still, is an absolute necessity within this intentness as leading rivalrys a good deal(prenominal) as Carnival Cruise lines have above average customer satiscircumstanceory ratings (Mena, 2011). A number of opportunities were too identified within our analysis that could assist in the achievements of the organization. Continuing the fraternitys expansion into new regions by increasing the ports from which the ship sails, will allow more customers to access the service both(prenominal) planetaryly and domestically.The CLIA has account an increase in cruise line passengers within the join States by 10. 3% from 2009-2010, proving an increase in domestic subscribe (Mena, 2011). Disney Cruise needs to continue to respond to this ascent demand by opening new homeports finishedout the country. In respon se to this rising demand, Disney is providing two new vessels to the fleet, from which it can market their serve beginning in 2012. (Cruz, 2011) This provides the organization with opportunities to advertise this unusual product and expand above the competition.Disneys newest ship, the Disney Fantasy, will debut in April of 2012. The addition of this much-anticipated vessel will provide the organization with an opportunity to market a product that will provide extensive customer appeal and attract new patrons. Some potential threats to the Disney Cruise line were likewise noted within the situational analysis. Perhaps the most of the essence(p) of all is the fact that demand will parti-color accordingly with its surrounding environment. For example, irregular go patterns as well as natural disasters serve as a major threat to the wellbeing of the organization (Scull, 2011).The fertility rate has alike been decreasing since 2007 and is predicted to keep failing in the next fe wer years (Brady, 2012) (refer to Figure 1). Figure 1 Recent Trends in Births and Fertility pass judgment by dint of June 2011, The trend identified in Figure 1 whitethorn potentially fix the undefiled organization as Disney Cruise markets particularizedally to families with young children. As a result, the demand for the product whitethorn precipitate callable to the decreased fertility rate. An early(a) external threat to Disney Cruise is the overall customers perception of the precaution of the cruise attention.The late sinking of the Costa Concordia cruise vessel on January 13, 2012 will take down personal fear of safety in potential customers (DEmilio, 2012). Although the cruise industry is currently experiencing growth, on-shore resorts also pose a potential threat to the cruise industry. An opposite threat that may affect the bon tons open perception are the social and ethnic groups who protest against by the Disney Company, including the Disney cruise ships as a result of alleged inappropriate activities and things much(prenominal) as damage ca dropd to the local marine life by the ships.This has brought about electronegative media attention, which may ultimately affect the customers view of the Company (Mena, 2011). This has the potential to directly put a damper on the entire Disney fool name. 2. 1. 3 Target Market Analysis In order to effectively find which consumers and markets the Disney Cruise line should be maneuvering, a mug market analysis must be constructed. This analysis will allow the Company to view and analyze the current target market as well as decode other target markets that would be expert to the organization.The target market of Disney Cruise Line is similar to Walt Disney theme parks that are directed towards families with young children. The cruise line is strongly back up by the Disney culture urinated by the Disney organization (Watts, 1995). Since the cost of fetching a cruise is higher than going to the theme parks, families interested in taking a Disney Cruise must have high and stable incomes (Silverstein, 2010). Because the outstrip will knead the motivation of the tourists, the major target market should be the residents in the United States.From the 2009 to 2010 main(a) spend pacify, the amount of the Statesn tourists difference from USA based ports increased by 3. 2% (Mena, 2011). To further get wind the preferences of families when taking a Disney Cruise, a survey (see Appendix B) has be designed to gain better insight into their profile. The survey can be viewed in Appendix B in which we used to gather target market information. 2. 2 External Within the conduction of the situational analysis, an external analysis is conducted in order to analyze all of the forces outside of the organization.This analysis includes competitor information, consumer information, industry information, and outside forces information. These external forces will assist in creating the best m arketing decisions for Disney Cruise Line. 2. 2. 1 Porters Five Forces In order to better understand the business decisions that are needed to be make by Disney Cruise Line, the Porters Five Forces model presents the sex act world-beater that each of these forces has in the industry and their electrical shock on the Disney Cruise Line.By looking at the model portrayed in Appendix C, Disney Cruise Line will be able to pose the key forces influencing the industry. accord to Porters five forces, it is clear that competitors and suppliers have more power than the Disney Cruise Line. Although Disney Cruise Line has its specific position in the cruise line market, other cruise line companies are older and bigger than Disney. (Clancy, 2008). Furthermore, the basic facilities that the other cruise lines offer are quite similar, much(prenominal) as providing rooms, restaurants, events and transportation to destinations.Thus, competitors become one of the most serious threats to the u nion. Also, the suppliers in cruise line companies have high bargaining power. They are companies such as shipyards which include large companies that provide unique products, i. e. the cruise ships themselves, and which institute to their high bargaining power. Another example is the pet contributionum companies which provide one of the most important sources in the cruise industry, oil. The value of oil cannot be defy by one or few companies and is related to the international situation existing at the time.On the other hand, one of the more unique features in the cruise line industry is economies of scale. The cruise line companies provide many different destinations, a large number of ships and build the trustworthyty of their brand to increase the barriers to institution in the market by others (Huxley, 2008). This causes a low threat of new entrants. Moreover, the bargaining power of buyers in the industry is also low. According to the report from Cruise Line Internationa l fellowship (CLIA), the number of customers in the cruise line industry is increasing (Scull, 2012).Another discernment for optimism toward the Disney Cruise Line is the high degree of loyalty to the Disney brand. The Walt Disney Company has cookd a magical world that cannot be replaced easily (Johnson, 1981). This is why although the price of Disney Cruise Line is very high, there are nonoperational many people wanting to take a cruise on the Disney Cruise Line rather than other cruise lines. Therefore, the bargaining power of buyers can be considered low. Last but not least, the potential substitutes for the Disney Cruise Line are Walt Disney Resorts, other family resorts, and package tours which include flight ticket and hotels.However, in addition to providing a Disney bed, the cruise provides travelers the opportunity to travel betwixt ports. As the result, the threat of substitutes in the cruise industry is considered to be low. 2. 2. 2 PESTE Analysis The PESTE analysis is a framework used by business strategists to identify those factors run in the outer (macro) environment of a firm which impinge upon its activities and positivity in addition to factors affecting its immediate product markets. PESTE has five elements governmental economic social scientific and environmental (PEST, 2006).These factors play an important role in the cruise line industry. However, they are unremarkably outside the control of the corporation and must be considered as either threats or opportunities. The PESTE analysis diagram for Disney Cruise Lines can be viewed in Appendix D. In order to get a more complete view of the companys current and future environment, the PESTE analysis has been conducted to assess the market from the stall of Disney Cruise Lines. Information gathered will help identify how external factors affect arketing situations and how they might influence future marketing activities. The PESTE diagram in appendix D illustrates the PESTE analysi s conducted for Disney Cruise Lines. In conducting the PESTE analysis, it presents the factors in the political environment that affect Disney Cruise Lines in the positive ways and those which provide opportunities to the organization. For example, the U. S. government is expanding the Global Entry Program to make it easier for frequent tourists to call up the United States (Bart, n. d. ).Such a polity brings more tourists into the U. S. and has the potential to increase the demand for the Disney Cruise Line. Furthermore, the scientific environment creates exciting new opportunities for the cruise line industry. Cutting edge engine room has been added to many cruise lines in the market in 2012 allowing them to utilize new and ever expanding technology (Archer, 2012). For example, it is now more convenient than ever for customers to plan and book a cruise vacation online with the do-it-yourself travel agent option, acquired by Disney (Pike, 2012).The Disney Cruise Line can use th ese new technologies to develop new service, such as incorporating a Virtual Porthole, a service provided on the new Disney Dream. These portholes offer a real-time view outside the ship via live word picture provided by high-definition cameras placed on the exterior of the ship (Cruz, 2012). On the other hand, the factors in the social environment today show the negative impact to the industry. Religious welfare groups who protest Disney for what they deem as offensive secular will have an impact on the company and the marketing decisions the company makes.There are also groups that claim cruise ships are harming the environment. These trends will affect consumers and particularly when customers are making decisions of choosing either an onshore resort vacation, or an open sea cruise vacation. Recent events have also highlighted the potential dangers and safety factors of the cruise line industry. The recent Costa Concordia cruise ship that has sunk has attracted media attention and will alter the markets perspective on the safety of open sea vacations (DEmilio, 2012).If consumers are concerned about the safety of cruising, they may choose an onshore resort vacation instead of the cruise Last but not least, current economic and environmental factors do not appear to be having a real significant impact in the cruise line industry. Although the industry is still trying to survive from an highly difficult economic period from 2008- 2010, the demand on the wave anneal in 2012 is still high (Mena, 2011 Yong, 2012). The wave season is the cruise industrys peak sales period of the year, typically running from January to ring for most lines.The cruise line industry usually uses this to predict the demand for the hobby quarter in the year. (Yong, 2012) In conclusion, the political environment and technological environment have positive impacts and provide encouraging opportunities to the cruise line industry. On the other hand, the current social environment can be the threat to the industry. Additionally, while the economic environment does not appear to significantly influence the cruise line industry at this time, the organization should still be awake of its potential impact. . 2. 3 Competitor Analysis The competitor analysis plays an important role in marketing plan. It not only shows the position of the organization in the market but also presents both the advantages and disadvantages of the organization compared to its competitors. By looking at the competitor analysis, the organization can correct the marketing direction and clear its position in the industry. Furthermore, the organization can ensure that the product is superior so as to satisfy the customers, especially the customers in the target market.The direct competitors of Disney Cruise Line are other cruise line companies, including those with different types of marketing positions. The figure shown in Appendix E uses the two factors, price and the level of family orient ated packages provided to identify the position of all the competitors. By looking at Appendix E, it presents that the Disney Cruise Line, princely Caribbean, Norse and Carnival are in the same position group which are highly family-oriented. Furthermore, Disney is the only company which provides true luxuriousness cruise line products to the family market.According to the figure portrayed in Appendix F, Royal Caribbean and Norwegian are the main competitors to Disney Cruise Line. All three companies provide special kids programs but using different names (Sloan, 2011). Another parity between Disney and Norwegian is that both of them have their own fictional characters. Disney Cruise Line has Disneys character such as Mickey b overleap eye and Toy Story. On the other hand, Norwegian has characters from Nickelodeon such as Spongebob Squarepants. Since there are more cartoon characters in the media today, Disney should be aware of he potential competition non-Disney characters pl ay in consumers decision making. In addition, Disney and Royal Caribbean both provide unique cruising live ons but in different way. Royal Caribbean provides many adventure facilities on their ships, such as onboard rock climbing wall, ice skating rink, mini-golf course, surfing simulator, and boxing ring these are very attractive to some family members, particularly teenagers. On the other hand, Disney is more centeringed on younger children and families as a whole.By including in Disneys special show the famous Disney characters and the Magical moment, it attempts to create the unique Disney experience for every family. Disney creates a moment that parents and children can experience together. The similarities between the Norwegian and Royal Caribbean cruise line are primary pricing and the diversity of destinations. The average per person price of Disney Cruise is over $250 per day while the other cruises are closer to $100 per day, significantly cheaper than Disney. The divers ity of destinations is another difference between Disney and its two main competitors.Since Disney has only 4 ships, it can only provide a few destinations to its customers. On the other hand, Norwegian and Royal Caribbean have 12 and 22 ships respectively. ground on the size of the company, they provide more choices of destinations than Disney, and this becomes another weakness to the Disney Cruise Line company. 2. 3 Summary Through conducting of the situational analysis, many reoccurring themes were highlighted which are important for making good marketing decisions for the Disney Cruise organization. It is evident that the Disneys Cruise organization makes beneficial use of the Disney experience and theme.As seen in the SWOT analysis, while Disney Cruise offers a unique experience attractive to families, the company is also not as established as its competitors within the industry. This also appears to be evident in Porters five forces when considering Disneys position in the in dustry since its competitors have been in existence longer, are much larger, as well as competitor footprint. The targeted market analysis presents that the family consumer market is the targeted audience for Disney Cruise, but as was also shown in the SWOT and competitor analysiss, packages and services are high priced and limited.The analysis has shown that Disney Cruise offers a unique theme attractive to all family vacation seekers, but also shows the already established and large competition to the organization by the long stand cruise lines. 3. 0 Problem/opportunity Identification Through conducting the situational analysis, it is evident that the Disney Cruise organization is unable to compete with leading competitors due to their lack of size and ports. This problem is especially apparent in the organizations competitor analysis where the small size of the organization sexual intercourse to competitors within the industry is portrayed.This is troublesome for the Disney Crui se Line as tourists usually select their cruise line based upon destination first and then look for accommodations that satisfy personal desires (Jenkins, 1978). Disney currently only provides a few destinations which are all located near the continental United States, such as Alaska, Hawaii, Canada, Mexico, Spain, and the Bahamas. In contrast, its competitor, Royal Caribbean, provides destinations all around the world, including various ports in South America, Europe, Africa, Australia, and Asia. This makes it impossible for Disney Cruise to compete based upon ports.Expanding the size of the company is a strategy that would require significant resources and time. The Disney Cruise organization does however possess the opportunity to create a recess market targeted towards customers who remain loyal to the organization. It has been shown that customers in the cruise industry often show a high degree of loyalty to the organization which they choose (Sun, Jiao, & Tian, 2011). Th rough conducting an internal analysis, it is made clear that consumers who use Disneys products and services often remain loyal to the organization and are likely to procure from the Disney brand again.Disney Cruise has the opportunity to specifically target Disney loyalists who are seeking a new form of the Disney experience. In doing so, the Disney Cruise organization must focus its marketing on the journey rather than the destination. The best opportunity for the organization is to develop a specific market in which the consumer will not be influenced by the amount of ports that are offered. In order to create a ecological niche market, which is defined as targeting one segment of a market (McDaniel, dear & Hair, 2007), Disney Cruise Line must market itself to Disney loyalists.The organization must implement and execute certain marketing strategies that target current and previous Disney customers. 4. 0 Marketing Strategy As seen in section 3. 0, the major weakness of Disney Cruise Line is the size of the organization. This causes a problem for the company because it cannot compete with its competitors on the quantity of service such as choices of destinations, date of departure, and the period aboard. In order to counteract this weakness, it is demand to develop a marketing strategy for Disney Cruise Line.Developing a marketing strategy will help the company to achieve its goal by defining a target market, setting marketing goals, and developing and maintaining a marketing mix (Shoemaker & Shaw, 2007). According to previous sections, Disney Cruise Line is unique in the cruise line market, due to the ability to create a unique Disney experience for its customers and attract tourists with its Disney brand (Watts, 1995 Pettigrew, 2011). Thus, the goal of the company should be to focus on a niche market. In this case, the niche market is visitors who have been to Disney theme parks and are highly loyal to the Disney Company.In order to achieve this go al, Disney Cruise Line has to create a specific position which occupies a place in consumers minds that cannot be replaced by its competitors (McDaniel, Lamb & Hair, 2007). Furthermore, the functional strategy mix for Disney Cruise Line in the next 12 months is a product/service strategy, distribution strategy, and communication strategy. 4. 1 Product/service strategy Product and service are the basic items in a company. According to Shoemaker and Shaw, product/service mix is defined as the combination of products and services aimed at solid the needs of the target market (Shoemaker & Shaw, 2007).In addition, since positioning is about aim product/service offering and accompanying image to occupy a unique place in customers minds, product and service play an important role in a positioning strategy (King, 2012). In order to segment the market, Disney Cruise Line has to develop a unique product which turns a cruise line experience into a Disney experience. As Disney has its c haracters, shows, and a private island, Castaway Key, Disney Cruise Line should position itself as a destination rather than just a travel mode. In addition, DisneyCruise Line should provide more package options which combine the existing travel resources, such as Disney resorts and Adventures by Disney, to offer more experiences to their customers. 4. 2 dispersal strategy The distribution mix is made up of all carry available between the firm and the target market that increase the hazard of getting the product and the customer to each other (Shoemaker & Shaw, 2007). In other words, it is a mix of ways customers bribe the product. Thus, where to sell the product to customers has become the most important question in this strategy.The target market of Disney Cruise Line is families which have been to Disney resorts and like the experiences. They usually have a high loyalty to the Disney Company. In this situation, direct marketing is the best strategy to use. Direct marketing refers to the techniques used to get costumers to make a purchase from home, office, or other nonretail setting (McDaniel, Lamb & Hair, 2007). This provides more opportunities for customers to purchase the product. In this case, Disney resorts and Disney theme parks can become channels through and through which Disney Cruise Line can sale its products.Furthermore, Disney companies can share the customer information and send out e-mails directly to their potential customers to create the motivation of booking their next trip with Disney Cruise Line. 4. 3 Communication strategy One of the proposed strategies that will assist in the development of a niche market is to create a Disney loyalists rewards program. The development of a rewards program focuses on current customers rather than on potential customers or competition. This type of strategy is a form of relationship marketing, which is intended to establish, develop, and maintain successful relative exchanges (Morgan, 1994). This promotion targeting frequent customers will create communications between the firm and the market that increase the tangibility of the product/service mix, monitor consumer expectations, and bias customers to purchase (Shoemaker & Shaw, 2007). A rewards program for the frequent customers of Disney will influence these consumers towards future business with the organization, creating a niche market. 5. 0 Conclusion In conclusion, it was found through the conduction of the situational analysis that Disney Cruise Line could not successfully compete with its major competitors based upon size alone.It is noted in the analysis that consumers within the cruise industry will often use ports as a deciding factor in determining their interests. Disney Cruise Line must counteract this problem by marketing to and creating a niche market for Disney loyalists. In doing so, the organization must focus on targeting previous Disney customers who are looking for another way to experience the Disney theme. This strategy is one that could be implemented within a 12 month time period, and serves as a strategic plan to counterbalance the lack of size and ports of the Disney Cruise organization. Reference list Archer, J. 2011). Seven ships for seven seas. motivity Weekly (UK), 5(Nov 2010), 14-16. Bart, J. , & USA, T. (n. d. ). President invites the world to visit. USA Today. Brady, E. H. , Paul D. S. , & Division of Vital Statistics. (2012). Recent trends in births and fertility rates through June 2011. NCHS Health E-Stat. Retrieved from http//www. cdc. gov Clancy, M. (2008). Cruisin To exclusion Commodity chains, the cruise Industry, and development in the Caribbean. Globalizations, 5(3), 405-418. Cruz, G. (2011, July). Disney Dream. Cruise Travel. (July/August 2011), 14-17. DEmilio, F. (2012, February 8).Costa Concordia survivors to push for change in laws. USA Today. Retrieved from http//travel. usatoday. com/cruises/story/2012-02-08 Disney Cruise Line, (2012). Di sney Cruise Line Fact Sheet 2011. Retrieved from http//disneycruise. disney. go. com Garcia,J. (2012, February 12). Disney sees big year up for cruise ships. Tourism and Travel. Huxley, L. (2008, May 16). Could the tide be turning for how cruise is sold?. Travel Trade Gazette UK & Ireland. p. 13. Jenkins, R. L. (1978). Family vacation decision-making. ledger of Travel Research 16(4)2- 7. Johnson, D. M. (1981). Disney world as structure and ymbol Re-creation of America experience. Journal of Popular Culture, 151, 157-165 King, C. (2012). Hospitality & culinary arts. Boston, MA Pearson Education Company. McDaniel, C. , Lamb, C. W. , & Hair, J. F. (2007). Marketing Essentials. (5). Mason, OH Thomson exalteder Education Mena, H. (2011). Cruise industry overview 2011. Florida-Caribbean Cruise Association. Retrieved from http//www. f-cca. com Morgan, R. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20-38. Retrieved from http//www. jstor. org/stable/1252308 PEST. (2006). Collins vocabulary of Business.Retrieved from http//www. credoreference. com Pettigrew, S. (2011). Hearts and minds childrens experiences of Disney World. Consumption, Markets Culture,14(2), 145-161. doi10. 1080/10253866. 2011. 562016 Pike, J. (2012). 2012 Survival guide. Travel Agent,339(9), 28-33. Scull, T. W. (2012). Cruising 2011. Cruise Travel, 33(4), 8-18. Shoemaker, S. , Shaw, M. (2007). Marketing Essentials in Hospitality and Tourism Foundations and Practices. Boston, MA Pearson Prentice Hall. Sloan, G. (2011, September 16). How to pick the sodding(a) cruise. USA Today. Sun, X. , Jiao, Y. , Tian, P. (2011).Marketing research and revenue optimization for the cruise industry A concise review. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(3), 746- 755. doi10. 1016/j. ijhm. 2010. 11. 007 Watts, S. (1995). Walt Disney Art and authorities in the American century. Journal of American History, 82(1), 84-110. Weissmann, A. , Tunney , D. (2011). Disney Cruise Line adds New York, Seattle and Galveston homeports. Travel Weekly, 70(15), 6. Woodside, A. G. , Megehee, C. M. (2010). Advancing consumer behaviour theory in tourism via visual narrative art. International Journal of Tourism Research,12(5), 418-431. Young, S. J. 2012). Cruise industrys wave season under way Signs are encouraging, say travel agents. Travel Agent, 339(9), 8. Appendixes Appendix A SWOT analysis Strengths Weaknesses 1. Owned and operated under the largest media and entertainment company in the world, Walt Disney. 2. Corporation employs over 150,000 people. 3. Operated under Disneys well -established brand name. 4. The introduction of new, innovative ships. 5. Expansion to new ports and shipping destinations throughout the world. 6. number 1 turn over rate for employees. 7. Management is committed and confident in continuing promotions and attracting new customers. 8.Provides unique atmosphere that can not be replicated elsewhere. 1. Limi ted range of target audience. 2. Customer perception of non-dimensional experience. 3. Already established and successful competition. 4. Resources needed to train employees to maintain exceptional service. Opportunities curses 1. Expansion into new markets internationally and domestically. 2. Addition of new ships can satisfy the rising demand. 3. New ship Disney Fantasy to debut in April. 1. Demand may vary accordingly with environment. 2. Demand may vary seasonally and is weather permitting. 3. semipublic perception of cruise industrys safety. . Expansion and growth of on-shore resorts will decrease interest in cruise lines. 5. postgraduate competition within cruise line industry. 6. kind and ethnic groups protests against Disney brand. Appendix B hatful &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- This is a survey designed to find out the target market and the consumer behavior of Disney Cruise Line. It may take you 5-10 minutes to c omplete the survey. thank you for your cooperation inquiry Group A- Motivation 1. Are you interested in attendance Disney Cruise Line? ?Yes ? No 2. book you ever been to any Disneys theme park? ?Yes ? No 3.Have you ever been to Disney Cruise Line? ?Yes ? No (Go to question 7 if your react is NO) 4. How do you like the overall experience on Disney Cruise Line? (Choose one) Strongly dislike Some-what dislike general like strongly like ? ? ? ? ? 5. Rank how the pursuance items were attractive to you on Disney Cruise Line? Choose one on each question, from 1 (very unattractive) to 5 (very attractive) Price of the ticket . . 1 2 3 4 5 Quality of the room.. 2 3 4 5 Quality of the Service.. 1 2 3 4 5 Taste of the food.. . 1 2 3 4 5 Activities on the cruise .. 1 2 3 4 5 The destination of the trip .. 1 2 3 4 5 direct provided on the cruise . 1 2 3 4 5 Disneys Characters. .. 1 2 3 4 5 Program for Children 1 2 3 4 5 Question Group B Satisfaction 6. After your experience, how satisf ied are you with the spare-time activity items on Disney Cruise Line?Choose one for each question, from 1 (very unsatisfied) to 5 (very satisfied) Price of the ticket . . 1 2 3 4 5 Quality of the room.. 1 2 3 4 5 Quality of the Service.. 1 2 3 4 5 Taste of the food.. . 1 2 3 4 5 Activities on the cruise .. 1 2 3 4 5 The destination of the trip .. 1 2 3 4 5 commemorate provided on the cruise . 1 2 3 4 5 Disneys Characters. .. 1 2 3 4 5 Program for Children 1 2 3 4 5 Question Group C Other cruise experience 7. Have you ever been to any other cruise line? ?Yes ? No 8. If answer to question 6 Yes, which cruise line did you take? (Circle one or more) ? Carnival ? Caribbean ? Celebrity ? Coasted ? Crystal ? Cunard ? Holland ? MSC ? Norwegian ? P & O ? Princess ? Regient ? Royal ? Other 9. Compared to the other cruises you have experienced, what are the 3 areas where you think Disney Cruise Line is better? Rank 1(Most favorite), 2(Second favorite), 3(third favorite) in the followi ng items ? Price ? Food ? Service ? Program for children ? Activities at the destination ? Show ? Room ? Characters ? Activities on cruise ? Other 10. Compared to the other cruises you have experienced, what are the 3 areas that you think Disney Cruise Line is worse? Rank 1(Worst), 2(second worst), 3(third worst) in the following items ? Price ? Food ? Service ? Program for children ? Activities at the destination ? Show ? Room ? Characters ?Activities on cruise ? Other Geographic questions 11. What is you gender? ? virile ? Female 12. What age group are you in? ?Under 12 ? 13-17 ? 18-24 ? 25-29 ?30-39 ? 40-49 ? 50-64 ? over 65 13. Which country are you resident in? ?The United States ? Other 14. What is your marriage situation? ?Single ? Married ? Divorced 15. How many children (under 18) are you live with in your family? ?None ? 1 ? 2 ? 3 ? More then 4 16. Who did you travel with on the cruise line? (Choose one or more) ? Alone ? Husband/Wife ?Son/ young lady ? Boyfriend/Girlfrie nd ? Parent(s) ? Friend(s) ? Colleague(s) ? Schoolmate(s) 17. Would you say your familys total gross income for this calendar year will be? ?Under $30,000 ? $30,000-$49,999 ? $50,000-$99,999 ? $100,000 or more &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- extolment You have done all the questions, thank you again for your cooperation soaring competitive Rivalry * Many competitors and industry continues to grow * Similar products offered between competitors * High satisfied customer loyalty upset Supplier source * inunct price are hard to control Suppliers large corporations * queer products and services * Ability to constantly change and adapt to times Low Threat of Substitution * Some substitution available for different for of vacation * singularity of cruise industry Low Buyer Power * change magnitude number of customers * High loyalty to Disneys brand * Customers tend to be price sensitive Low Threat of New Entry * High barriers to en try * Economies of scale * Demand and interest within industry is rising High Competitive Rivalry * Many competitors and industry continues to grow * Similar products offered between competitors High satisfied customer loyalty Low Supplier Power * Oil price are hard to control * Suppliers large corporations * Unique products and services * Ability to constantly change and adapt to times Low Threat of Substitution * Some substitution available for different for of vacation * Uniqueness of cruise industry Low Buyer Power * Increasing number of customers * High loyalty to Disneys brand * Customers tend to be price sensitive Low Threat of New Entry * High barriers to entry * Economies of scale * Demand and interest within industry is rising Appendix C Porters Five ForcesPolitical * The tourism policy has become more friendly to international tourists, especially to China and brazil Economic * Recovery from difficult 2008-2010 economic period * The cruise line industry are not really i nfluenced by the recession Social * Religious welfare groups protest against Disney for offensive material * Lifestyle trend of consumers rather onshore vacation rather than overseas * Customers opinions of weather or not the cruise industry provides a safe vacation * human race perception of Cruise Lines from social media, including propaganda of sinking ships. Technological * New technological advancement on features for vessels * Overall, 19 new vessels for 2012 include latest technology from competitors * Online booking and advancements in technological travel agencies * Virtual Porthole in all inside staterooms Appendix D PEST analysis Appendix E Competitor map Carnival ? Low Price ? Disney ? Norwegian ? Royal Caribbean High Price Coasted ? MSC ? Cunard ? Princess ? Celebrty ? Holland Regient ? ? P & O Crystal ? Family Oriented Package Family Oriented Package Characters Unique experience Low Price Different region Program for kids Characters Unique experience Low Price D ifferent region Program for kids Appendix F Competitor footprint