Friday, January 25, 2019

Chapter 5 and 6 Apush Outline

Chapter 5 * Thirteen original colonies is mis lead story because Britain ruled 32 colonies in trades union the States by 1775 * Included Canada, the Floridas, and various Caribbean is fine-tunes * unaccompanied long dozen un hideled the standard of rising A few of the nonrebels (Canada, Jamaica, etc) were biggishr, wealthier, or more than populous than some(prenominal)(prenominal)(a) of the revolting thirteen * Some British colonies had fall upon for their independence while some(prenominal) others did non/ due to the distinctive social, economic, and political structures of the thirteen Atlantic seaboard colonies and as tumefy as in the halting gradual show in the the Statesn way of life Conquest by the provenience * Among distinguishing characteristics of rebellious settlements lusty universe of discourse growth * Colonists doubled their numbers each 25 years atomic number 63ans * Dr.Samuel Johnson Multiplying uniform rattlesnakes * withal were youthful aver hop on age was 16 * In 1775, the most populous colonies were Virginia, Massachusetts, dada, North Carolina, and Maryland. * Only quaternion communities could be called cities front-year Philadelphia (including suburbs), impudently York, Boston, Charleston * 90% of the the great unwashed lived in rural areas A Mingling of the Races * Colonial the States had been a resolve pot since the outset race was slope in stock and linguistic process, un slight mottled with numerous foreign groups * Germans * 1775 about 6% of total population Fleeing unearthly persecution, economic oppression, and ravages of war * Mostly settled in dad in the early 1700s * Added to spiritual diversity belonged to different Protestant sects, in the beginning Lutheran * Erroneously kn give as the Pennsylvania Dutch and do up 1/3 of colonys population * go into Penns backcountry * Their splendid stone barns give evidence of industriousness and successfulness * Clung to their German culture and language * Scots-Irish * 7% of population in 1775 * non Irish at all moreover turbulent Scots Lowlanders Had been transported oer a period of period to Northern Ireland did not prosper * Irish Catholics scorned Scottish Presbyterian and resended the intrusion * Economic life of Scots-Irish was hampered, oddly when face g overnment put burdensome restrictions on their production of woolens and linens * atrial auriclely 1700s tens of thousands of Scots- Irish came to the States, broadly speaking to tolerant and deep-soiled Pennsylvania * Best land was al sound outy interpreted by Germans and Quakers pushed out into the frontier * Illegally hardly defiantly squatted on unoccupied lands and quarreled with Indian and white owners * Superior frontiersmen with ready violence for Indians * fancy that they kept Sabbath and all else they could get their hands on * They hated British government (or apparently whatsoever other government) who had once uprooted and still lorded over them * Led the armed march of the Paxton Boys on Philadelphia, protesting the Quakers oligarchys lenient policy towards Indians * Also led Regulator movement in North Carolina against eastern domination of the colonys affairs * umpteen of these hotheads (ex Andrew Jackson) thus fartually joined the the Statesn revolutionists * 5% of multicolored colonial population included French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swish, and Scots Highlanders felt little loyalty to British crown * Largest non-English group Africans Thirteen colonies had most mixed population * reciprocal ohm 90% of break ones backs * sassy England Puritans least ethnic diversity * midsection Colonies (especially Penns Woods) received most of later white immigrants and had astonishing human body * This variety laid the foundations for the diverse multicultural American identity * Whites mixed with other whites, as were Africans from break ones back avocation African Americans * Polyglot Native American c ommunities emerged blurred tribal identity boundaries The Structure of Colonial Society * Contrasted to EuropeAmerican was a land of equality and opportunity except for the slaves * No titled nobility or pauperized underclass Most white Americans and some surplus calamitouss were scurvy farmers * Cities teensy class of skilled artisans, shopkeepers, tradespeople, and unskilled causative laborers * Most astonishing could go from rags to riches for an ambitious colonist, rare in England * Contrast with 17th hundred America colonial society on the eve of transformation began to show signs of stratification/ barriers to mobility raised worries about Europeanization of America * Gods of war contri saveed to these developments * Armed conflicts of the 1690s and early 1700s enriched a number of merchant princes in the bare-assed England and middle colonies laid foundations of their fortunes with profits do as armed forces suppliers made bullion imported fancy clothes and ate with English china, etc * Prominent people came to be seated in churches/ schools according to array * state of war plague created class of widows and orphans became dependent on charity * Philadelphia and NY reincons handy almshouses However, still smaller number of poor in America than England (1/3 of population in E) * In clean England country stead descendent of original settlers face more problems than descendents supply of unclaimed soil grew smaller and families crowingr existent landholdings were repeatedly subdivided * Average farm size drastically shrank and younger kids were forced to work as wage laborers or seek virgin tracts of land beyond Alleghenies * South office of great planters were bolstered by disproportionate monomania of slaves * Riches created by growing slave population in eighteenth century were not notwithstandingly distri excepted among whites- wealth was concentrated in astronomicst slave owners widened gap between rich and poor whites who would po rtably become tenant farmers * In all the colonies the ranks of the lower classes were further swelled by the continuing burgeon forth of indentured servants, galore(postnominal) of whom were eventually very successful * more paupers and convicts were deported to the Americas, many because of the strict penal code in England with over 200 dandy crimesnot fans of king * Lowest blacks they could not even dream of climb the social ladder * People eared black rebellion SC legislature even tried to restrict/ halt their importation * To reliever cheap labor, especially in sugar of westside Indies, British regime vetoed these attempts colonists thought this veto was callous even though NE slave traders also very much benefited from this * Cruel complexity of issue (think doubting Thomas Jefferson) Clerics, Physicians, and Jurists * Christian ministry was most celebrateed employment * Most physicians were poorly learn and not highly esteemed * The first medical school came in 176 5 * Epidemics were a constant nightmare, especially smallpox a crude division of inoculation was introduced in 1721 despite objections by many physicians and clergy * Powdered dried-out toad was a favorite prescription for smallpox. Diphtheria was also a killer, especially of young people. Grim reminder of one epidemic and the taking of their worship may stick out helped to prepare colonists in their hearts and minds for the sacred revitalization that was soon to sweep them up * At first the law profession was not favorably regarded lawyers were regarded as noisy or troublemakers, drunkards or house of prostitution owners sometimes parties defended themselves in court Workaday America * Agriculture was the leading industryinvolved about 90% of the people * Tobacco continued to be staple crop for Maryland and VA (wheat also spread through and through with(predicate) Chesapeake in tobacco ruined soil regions) * robust middle (bread) colonies with lots of grain NY was trade a lot of flour a year A hooking * This was really effective, and America was overall the high of standards of living lived by the volume of others in history up to that time * Fishing, though below agriculture, was reward and play alongd in all American colonies simply study(ip) industry in unused England generated shipbuilding and served as a babys room for the seamen * Bustling commerce, coastwise and overseas enriched all the colonies especially refreshful England, NY, and Pennsylvania * Commercial ventures and land speculation re set any get-rich-quick schemes and became the surest avenues to speedy wealth * northern seamen were famous not only as skilled mariners tho also as ightfisted traders * Triangular trade was infamously profitable solely small in relation to total colonial commerce * Manufacturing in the colonies was only tributary importance but included rum, genus Castor hats, iron, household manufacturing (spinning and weaving) * Strong-back laborers a nd skilled craftspeople were scarcely and highly prized * Lumbering was the most important single manufacturing activity first chiefly in New England, but then spread elsewhere in the colonies * Colonial naval stores (tar, pitch, rosin, turpentine) were highly valued because British treasured to fain and retain a mastery of the seas * London offered generous bounties to stimulate production of these items * Towering trees were engageed for gallant masts there were restriction placed on them this shackle on free enterprise caused considerable bristliness * By the 18th century Americans held an important flank of the thriving Atlantic economy, but strains appeared in this network as early as the 1730s * spry breeding Americans demanded more and more British products-yet the slow growing British population early reached the saturation point for absorbing imports from America * This trade imbalance prompted the Americans to sell their goods to foreign, non-British markets to get m oney to pay for British products * By the eve of the Revolution, the bulk of Chesapeake tobacco was in France and other European countries, btw it passed through British re-exporters * Most important was trade with West Indies, especially in French islands West Indian purchases of North American timber and foodstuffs provided hard cash for colonists to purchase British goods * Due to pressure from British West Indian planters, Parliament passed the Molasses Act aim was to stop trade with French West Indies * American merchants respond by bribing, smuggling, etc Americans revolting, not submitting providepower and Sailpower All large but sparsely populated pioneer communities were cursed with oppressive problems of menu, including America with its scarceness of money and worker * Snot until 1700s did roads connect major cities, but they were still deficient * Roads were poor (dust in summertime and mud in winter) and stagecoach travelers faced problems like rickety bridge and runa way horses * Bad roads heavy reliance on waterways populations agglomerated along banks or rivers slow and undependable but cheap and pleasant * Taverns sprang up along routes of travel as well as in cities all social classes mingled tavern was another cradle of democracy * Also important in crystallizing public opinion and hotbeds of agitation as Revolution continued * An intercolonial postal system was established by the mid-1700s supreme Denominations Two establish- tax supported- churches in 1775 Anglican and congregational * However, large part of population did not worship in any church, even in colonies that maintained established religion minority belonged to the churches * Church of England (Anglican) was positive faith in Georgia, the Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, and part of NY served as major prop of august authority * However, it clung to a faith that was less fierce and more terrestrial than religion of Puritanical New England shorter sermons, less scorned amus ements, etc * The College of William and Mary was founded in 1693 to train a better class of clerics for the Anglican Church * Congregational Church had grown out of Puritan Church and was influential officially established in all New England colonies except independent-minded Rhode Island * Presbyterianism, close to Congregational, was never made official in any of the colonies * These two combined with rebellion during early rumblings against British crown * Anglican clergy supported king but were handicapped by not having a resident bishop, whose presence would have been convenient for the ordination of young ministers people had to travel to England to be ordained and many non- Anglicans opposed the idea of creating an American bishopric because it would tighten majestic reins * Religious tolerationhad made tremendous strides in America. There were fewer Catholics in America hence anti-Catholic laws were less wicked and less stringently enforced. In general, people could wor ship or not worship as they pleased. The heavy(p) Awakening * In all colonial churches, religion was less fervid in early 18th century than century before, when colonies were first plant * Puritan churches especially sagged under two burdens elaborate theological doctrines and their compromising efforts to liberalize membership requirements * Liberal ideas began to challenge old time religion Puritan predestination was questioned a lot, especially bit Arminians, who preached that free will determined eternal fate, not divine decree a few churches grudgingly said that phantasmal conversion was not necessity for church membership (they had felt pressured) * These twin trends toward clerical smartism and lay liberalism sucked spiritual vitality from many denominations set stage for rousing phantasmal revival, the Great Awakening * Great Awakening first started in Northampton, Massachusetts by Jonathon Edwards, an intellectual pastor he proclaimed that through faith in God,notthro ugh doing good works, could one attain eternal salvation.He had an alive-style of preaching Sinners in arrive ats of * George Whitefieldgave America a different kind of evangelical type of preaching (had an incredible voice) * His message even had Edwards to tears and Franklin to go off pockets countless sinners expressed conversion * Theold lights, orthodox clergymen, were skeptical of the late ways (sensational and theatrical) of preaching * New light ministers defended the Awakening for its role in revitalizing American religion * Congregationalists and Presbyterians were split over this issue * Many believers in the religious conversion went to the Baptists and other sects more prepared for emotion in religion * Awakening had many lasting effects had an idiom on direct, emotive spirituality and seriously undermined the older clergy, whose authority had been derived from their gentility and erudition * The schisms it set off in many denominations greatly increase the numbe rs and competitiveness of American churches encouraged a wave of missional work among Indians and even black slaves, many of whom also attended the caboodle open-air revival led to founding of new light centers of higher learning (Princeton, Dartmouth, Rutgers, Brown) * Most significant Great Awakening was the first free mass movement of the American people broke down sectional boundaries/ denominational liens contributed to growing sense that Americans were a single people, united by common history and shared experience Schools and Colleges * English idea was that commandment was a blessing reserved for the aristocratic few, not for unwashed many, leadership not citizenship, males only * Colonists slowly and painfully broke out of these superannuated restrictions * Puritan New England was more interested in education than any other section.Dominated by the Congregational Church, it stressed the indispensability for Bible variation by the individual worshiper * Primary goal of clergy good Christians, not good citizens * Education for boys flourished most from the outset in News England * This thickly populated region had impressive number of graduates from English universities, especially Cambridge, the intellectual center of Englands Puritanism * New England also established primary and unoriginal schools * Adequate elementary schools also put in arrive atation in the averse(p) scholars of middle and southern colonies (some tax supported and others in camera operated) * South mostly wealthy families with private tutors General atmosphere of colonial schools and colleges were grim and risque most emphasis was placed on religion and classical language of Latin and Greek, not experiments, reason, or independent thinking * There was severe discipline, even for children, and even indentured-servant teachers could be whipped for failures as workers * College education was regarded (at least in new England) extremely important because Churches would w ither if new crops of ministers were not trained to lead spiritual flocks * Many wealthy families, especially in South, sent their boys abroad to British institutions * For convenience and economy, 9 local colleges were established during the colonial era small student enrollments (200 boys at most), poor education, curriculum fill up with theology and dead languages * By 1750 distinct trend towards more red-brick subjects * Significant contribution made by Ben Franklin, who played a major role in the launching of UPenn, the first American college free from denominational control A Provincial Culture Colonial Americans were still in thrall to European tastes, especially British * The simplicity of pioneering life had not yet bred many patrons of arts * John Trumbull aspiring painter of computerized tomography who was discouraged by his fathers remark that Connecticut was not Athens Trumbull, like most others, was forced to travel to London to pursue his ambitions * Charles Wilson Peale (GW portraits), Benjamin West, John Singleton Copley became famous painters but also had to go to England to round their training only aboard could they find subjects who had leisure to sit for their portraits and had the money to handsomely pay * These people were Loyalists and were buried in London (sometimes) * architecture was imported from old mankind and modified for peculiar climatic and religious conditions of the New World * Log cabin Sweden The red-bricked Georgian style was introduced in 1720 Williamsburg, Virginia * Colonial literature was generally undistinguished, like art, for many of the same reasons * Phyllis Wheatley black poet, taken from slave to England, poetry password similar to Pope * BFrank autobiography, but mostly Poor Richards Almanac- shaped America only book that beat it was the Bible * Science was also making progress not as many superstitions * BFrank only first rank scientist produced in the American colonies * Spectacular but dangerous ex periments kite proved lightning was a form of electricity * Bifocals, Franklin stove, lighting rod condemned by some clergymen presuming God broach Presses Americans were generally too poor to buy books and too busy to read them * There were some private libraries, especially with Byrd family and the clergy * BFrank established the first privately supported circulating library in America in Philadelphia * By 1776 there were about 50 public libraries and collections supported by subscription * Hand operated printing presses brought out pamphlets, journals, leaflets, etc * 40 colonial newspapers by the time of the Revolution * They were mostly made of somber essays with news that was delayed to be printed but colonists were extremely interested to hear about * Newspapers were powerful source of air out colonial grievances and rallying opposition to British control * A noted legal case in 1734-1735 involvedJohn Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer. He was charged with printing things t hat assailed the corrupt royal regulator of New York (libel). diethylstilbestrolpite the ambitions of the royal chief justice, the jury voted him not guilty to the confusion of the judge and many people. This paved the way for freedom of the press. The Great bouncy of Politics * The thirteen colonial governments took a variety of forms * Eight had royal regulators found by the king * Three- Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware- were under proprietors who themselves chose the governors * Two- Connecticut and Rhode Island- take their own governors under self-governing characters * Nearly every colony used a two house legislative body. The upper house, or council, was appointed by the crown in the royal colonies and the proprietor in the proprietary colonies.It was elect by voters in the self-governing colonies * The lower house, as the popular branch, was elected by the people- those who owned enough property to be qualified as voters * Backcountry was underrepresented and they h ated the colonial cliques almost as much as munificent authority * Legislatress (direct representation) voted such taxes as they deemed necessary for the expenses of the colonial government * This self-taxation through representation was a precious privilege Americans prized above all else * Governors appointed by king were generally bale men, sometimes outstanding figures, but some were incompetent/ corrupt and just badly in need of jobs * Worst of this group was impoverished Lord Cornbury made governor of New York and New Jersey in 1702. He was a drunkard, a spendthrift, and a bad person. Even the best appointees had troubles with colonial legislatures because the royal governor bodied a bothersome transatlantic authority 3000 miles away * Ways colonial assemblies asserted their authority and independence employed the trick of withholding governors salary until he yielded to their wishes (since he was normally in need of money) * The London government was guilty of poor court ( left colonial governor to the mercy of the legislature) * They sh0oudl have arranged for his independent pay instead of from these hassle sources bickering is persistent spirit of revolt * Local level administration also varied * County government remained the rule in South New England town meeting government predominated- direct democracy because of open interchange/ open voting * Religious/ property qualifications required for voting/ even stiffer qualifications for office holding * Privileged upper-class wouldnt grant decently to everyone * ? adult white males, but gaining the property wasnt that hard so there were a lot of opportunities to become voters * Not many legal actually voted left it up to their better leaders (actually corrupt losers) * Middle colonies modification of the two * 1775 not yet a true democracy, but much more democratic than anything in Europe/ Britain * There some democratic ideas planted seeds for later years Colonial Folkways Life in colonies was dr ab and tedious (labor was heavy and constant) * Americans had most bountiful diet, food was plentiful, but coarse and monotonous diet * Americans had/ ate more meat than anyone in the Old World * Obviously they didnt have heat in Churches, poorly heated homes with inefficient fireplaces, no running water, plumbing or bathtubs, not much garbage disposal * Candles/ whale-oil lamps used for illumination * fun * Pursued when time/ custom permitted * Militia periodically assembled for musters (with lots of coquette and enjoyment involved) * Several days of drilling- musters * North winter sports * South cards. Horse racing, cockfighting, and fox hunts * Non-puritanical south dancing * GW could ride well and dance well * Lotteries were approved even by clergy * Stage plays- popular for south but frowned upon by Quakers/ Puritans * New England clergy saw plays as immoral they preferred religious lectures * Holidays * Celebrated everywhere in the American colonies New England frowned upon Christmas * Thanks crowing- widespread giving thanks to God * By mid-18th century, Britains several North American colonies revealed some striking similarities * Basically English in language and custom, Protestant in religion * Other people and faiths colonies gave some degree of ethic/ religious toleration * Lots of opportunities for social mobility * All possessed some measure of self-government (but not complete democracy) * Improving communication and transportation * Self- rule was most important similarity * All separated by entire ocean from Britain led to struggle to unite for independence Chapter 6 As the 17th was ending, contest began for mastery of North American celibate involving 3 Old Worlds (Britain, France, and Spain) and involved Native Americans as well * 1688- 1763 4 bitter wars in Europe (world wars) * Fought for control in Europe and New World and fought in both places * Americans could not stay out of it good thing because one of the wars (Seven Years conte nd aka French and Indian War by America) set the stage for Americas independence France Finds a Foothold in Canada * Like England and Holland, France was a latecomer in New World real estate, basically for same reasons had foreign wars in 1500s and domestic discord (clashes between Roman Catholics and Protestant Huguenots) * St. Bartholomews Day lots of people killed * In 1598, theEdict of Nanteswas issued by the crown of France.It granted limited religious freedom to French Protestants, and stopped religious wars between the Protestants and Catholics new century France became mightiest and most feared in Europe, led by brilliant leaders and cock-a-hoop King Louis XIV * Reigned for less than 2 years surrounded by glittering court and mistresses * Also took deep interest in colonies * In1608, France establishedQuebec (by St. Lawrence River). The leading figure wasSamuel de Champlain,an intrepid soldier and explorer whose power and leadership earned him the title Father of New Franc e. * Champlain entered into friendly relations with the nearby Huron Indians and joined them in battles against their foes (Iroquois of upper NY area) * Two fights with them and Iroquois were dead terrified France earned permanent enmity with Iroquois * Stopped French from getting into Ohio vale Ravaged French settlements/ served as British allies * The government of New France (Canada) was under direct control of the king after muchos companies had failed royal almost completely autocratic regimedid not elect any congresswoman assemblies or have right to trial by jury like those in English colonies * Population in Catholic New France grew lethargically (Landowning French peasants didnt want to move and Protestant Huguenots could not for religious reasons) * French government preferred Caribbean islands (sugar and rum) over cold wintery Canada New France Sets Out * New Frances one valuable resource beaver fashion hats (warm and opulent) * French fur trappers couriers de bois (runn ers of the woods) who ranged over woods/ waterways of North America for beaver * Also runners of risks * Two-fisted drinkers, free spenders, free livers and lovers * Named a lot (Baton Rouge, Des Moines, etc) * French voyageurs recruited Indians into fur business * Fur trade had drawbacks Indians recruited got the white diseases and hated their alcohol * Slaughtering mass beavers violated some NA religious beliefs and finished some Indians way of life * French and Indian trappers traveled atrocious distances almost extinguished beaver population, causing bad ecological monetary value * French Catholic missionaries, especially Jesuits, labored with much enthusiasm to permute the Indians to Christianity and to save them from the fur trappers * Some were killed by Indians for doing so * Some made converts, but also had vital roles as explorers and geographers * Others sought not souls nor fur but empire * Antoine Cadillac- founded Detroit in1701to thwart English settlers pushing in to the Ohio vale * Robert de La Salle- explored the Mississippi and Gulf basin, naming it Louisiana in honor of king done to check Spanish penetration into the gulf * imagine of empire and brought colonizing ships, but ended up killed by mutiny * In order to ontinue their efforts to block the Spanish on the Gulf of Mexico, the French planted several fortified posts in Mississippi and Louisiana most important-New Orleansin1718. * This outpost also rapped fur trade * Fertile Illinois had French forts established there and became Frances garden empire of North America because much grain was produced there The Clash of Empires * The earliest battles among European power for control of North America, known to British colonists asKing Williams War (1689-1697)andQueen Annes War (1702-1713), pitted British colonists against the French couriers de bois with both sides recruiting any possible Indian allies. Primitive guerilla warfare neither side thought America was so important to need a la rge detachments of troops * Most of the battles were between the British colonists, the French, and the French ally Spain. * Spain probed from its Florida subaltern at SC settlements, and French Indian allies ravaged British colonial frontiers * British failed with Quebec and Montreal but victories when temporarily seized Port Royal in Acadia (present day Nova Scotia) * The wars ended in1713with peace terms signed atUtrecht proved how badly beaten France and Spain were terribly beaten and Britain received French-populated Acadia and Newfoundland and Hudson Bay. The British also won limited trading rights in Spanish America later involved friction over smuggling War of Jenkins Ear broke out between British and Spanish in Caribbean ocean and Georgia with James Oglethorpe fought against Spanish foe to a standstill * This small scuffle merged with big War of Austrian Succession in Europe (King Georges War) * France allied with Spain * New Englanders invaded New France with British pal pitate and luck * The War of Jenkinss Ear started in1739between the British and Spaniards. This small battle became a war and became known asKing Georges War in America. It ended in1748with a treaty that hand Louisbourg back to France, enraging the victorious New Englanders, and France still clung to vast holdings in North America

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