Monday, January 28, 2019
Plant layout Essay
instal LAYOUTOutline of ContentsWhat is dress layout?Necessity of steady-going layoutFactors affecting safe layoutPrinciples of dear(p) layoutAdvantages of good layoutSymptoms of poor layoutTypes of layoutWhat is PLANT LAYOUT?Plant layout refers to the arrangement of veridical facilities such(prenominal) as automobiles, equipment, tools, furniture etcetera in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of hearty at the lowest cost and with the least amount of discussion in processing the product from the receipt of raw frame bestow to the deli precise of the final exam product. Plant Layout is a plan of an optimum arrangement of facilities including personnel, operating equipment, retentiveness shoes, material handling equipments and all oppo berth supporting services along with the figure of speech of best structure to contain all these facilities. A good layout is one which allows material rapidly and directly for processing. This reduces transport handling, clerical and other costs down per unit. Space requirement atomic number 18 minimized and it reduces unfounded mold time and idle time of man.Necessity of good industrial plant layoutMinimization of material handlingOptimum utilization of available level space extermination of bottlenecks through balancing of all capacitiesMinimization o take delaysEasy supervision and better manpower resources through excretory product of idle timeElimination of physical efforts required by workersElimination or improvement of objectionable trading operations. E.g. Operations with bad odor, vibrating operations etc.Avoiding industrial accidentsBetter working conditions like light, ventilation, noise go through etc. Optimum utilization of machinery and equipment through proper use.Minimization of cost so that product will be available at cheaper rate to node and delivery in time.Factors affecting facility LayoutNature of plant-Engineering/ transit patienceType of mathematical product-Mass/Flo w, Batch, Job ShopType of Production-Make to Stock/order, std/specPlant Location-Area available, building shell-storeyVolume of Production-Scale of productionTypes of machines and equipment-automationRepairs and maintenance -Policy, schedule on siteArrangement of material handling equipmentFuture expansion planPrinciples of good Layout stripped-down HandlingInterdependenceMinimum investmentIntegration of factors-3MMinimum movement-Distance/FlowContinuous flow-forwardOptimum utilization of available space utmost visibilityMaximum accessibilityMaximum FlexibilitySafety, Security and happinessAdvantages of Good Plant LayoutProper and efficient utilization of available fundament spaceTransportation of work from one engineer to another point without any delay Proper utilization of production capacity.Reduce material handling costsUtilize labor efficientlyReduce accidents return for volume and product tractabilityProvide ease of supervision and controlProvide for employee safety an d healthAllow easy maintenance of machines and plant. remedy productivitySymptoms of Poor LayoutDelays and work stoppage in manufacturing process averse movement of material through the plantCongestion of materials, components and work in progressPoor utilization of spaceHigh material handling and transportation costsExcessive handling by skilled workersProduction cycles and delays in deliveryMental or physical strain on operatorsDifficulties in maintain effective supervision and controlUnderutilization of machines and workersLack of tractableness and difficulty in production planning and controlTypes Of LayoutThere are mainly four parts of plant layout(a) Product or line layout(b) Process or functional layout(c) Fixed position or location layout(d) combine or group layoutProduct or line layoutIn this type of layout the machines and equipments are arranged in one line depending upon the sequence of operations required for the product. It is also called as line layout. The materia l moves to another machine sequentially without any backtracking or deviation i.e. the output of one machine becomes input of the next machine. It requires a very little material handling. It is employ for mass production of standardized products.Advantages of Product layoutLow cost of material handling, overdue to straight and short route and absence ofbacktracking Smooth and around-the-clock operationsContinuous flow of workLesser inventory and work in progressOptimum use of floor space open and effective inspection of work and simplified production control lower berth manufacturing cost per unitDisadvantages of Product layoutHigher initial capital investment in special purpose machine (SPM) High overhead charges dislocation of one machine will disturb the production process.Lesser flexibility of physical resources.Process layoutIn this type of layout the machines of a similar type are arranged together at one place. This type of layout is employ for batch production. It is pr eferred when the product is not standardized and the quantity produced is very small.Advantages of Process layoutLower initial capital investment is required.There is higher(prenominal) degree of machine utilization, as a machine is not obturate for a single productThe overhead costs are relatively lowBreakdown of one machine does not disturb the production process. Supervision can be more effective and specialized.Greater flexibility of resources.Disadvantages of Process layoutMaterial handling costs are high due to backtrackingMore skilled labour is required resulting in higher cost. prepare in progress inventory is high needing greater storage space More frequent inspection is needed which results in costly supervision Combined layoutA combination of process & product layout is cognise as combined layout. Manufacturing concerns where several products are produced in repeated total with no likelihood of continuous production, combined layout isfollowed Fixed position or lo cation layoutFixed position layout involves the movement of manpower and machines to the product which stay stationary. The movement of men and machines is advisable as the cost of moving them would be lesser. This type of layout is preferred where the size of the job is bulky and heavy. Example of such type of layout is locomotives, ships, boilers, generators, wagon building, aircraft manufacturing, etc.Advantages of Fixed position layoutThe investment on layout is very small. The layout is flexible as change in job design and operation sequence can be easily incorporated. Adjustments can be made to meet shortage of materials or absence of workers by changing the sequence of operations.Disadvantages of Fixed position layoutAs the production period universe very long so the capital investment is very high. rattling large space is required for storage of material and equipment near the product. As several operations are often carried out simultaneously so there is possibility of confusion and conflicts among different workgroups.